AP Chemistry A. Allan Chapter 3 Notes - Stoichiometry 3.1 Atomic Masses A. C-12, the Relative Standard 1. C-12 is assigned a mass of exactly 12 atomic mass units (amu) 2. Masses of all elements are determined in comparison to the carbon 12 atom (12C) the
AP Chemistry Chapter 22 - Organic Chemistry 22.1 Alkanes: Saturated Hydrocarbons A. Straight-chain Hydrocarbons 1. Straight-chain alkanes have the formula C nH2n+2 2. Carbons are sp3 hybridized The First 10 Alkanes Name Formula (C nH2n+2) Methane CH4 Etha
Chapter Four Lecture Notes- Aqueous Reactions and Solution Stoichiometry
CHAPTER 4 HOMEWORK
1) pg 157: #1 - #10, 14, 18, 19,
4.1 General Properties of Aqueous Solutions
A solution is a homogeneous mixture of two or more substances.
A solution is
AP Chemistry Chapter 5 Lecture Notes
5.1 The Nature of Energy
Thermodynamics is the study of energy and its transformations.
Thermochemistry is the study of the relationships between chemical reactions and energy changes involving heat.
Chapter 3 Lecture Notes- Stoichiometry
3.1 Chemical Equations
CHAPTER 3 HOMEWORK
The quantitative nature of chemical formulas and reactions is called stoichiometry. 1) pg 110- #1, 3, 4, 5, 6, 9, 15,
Lavoisier observed that mass is conserved in a chemic
AP Chemistry Chapter 6 Lecture Notes- Electrons!
6.1 The Wave Nature of Light
Chapter 6 Homework
pg 253 #3, 4, 13, 15, 17, 19, 21, 25, 29
The electronic structure of an atom refers to the arrangement
pg 254 #31, 33, 37a, 47, 49, 51, 53, 57
AP Chemistry Chapter 7 Lecture Notes
7.1 Development of the Periodic Table
The periodic table is the most significant tool that chemists use for organizing and recalling chemical facts.
Elements in the same column contain the same number of outer-shell el
AP Chemistry Chapter 8 Lecture Notes- Basic Bonding
8.1 Chemical Bonds, Lewis Symbols, and the Octet Rule
The properties of many materials can be understood in terms of their microscopic properties.
Microscopic properties of molecules include:
STUDY GUIDE AP Chemistry
CHAPTER NINE- Molecular Geometry and Bonding Theories
Sections 9.1 through 9.6 Only
9.1 Molecular Shapes
Lewis structures give atomic connectivity: they tell us which atoms are physically connected to which atoms.
The shape of a m
CHAPTER ONE- Matter & Measurement
AP Chemistry Chapter 1 & 2 assignments
Chemistry is the study of properties of materials and changes that they undergo.
Test & homework collection on Wednesday 8/24
1.1 The Atomic and Molecular Perspective of Chemistry
AP Chemistry CHAPTER 20- Electrochemistry
20.1 Oxidation States
Chemical reactions in which the oxidation state of a substance changes are
called oxidation-reduction reactions (redox reactions).
Oxidation involves loss of electrons (OIL).
AP Chemistry CHAPTER 16 STUDY GUIDE Acid-Base Equilibrium
16.1 Acids and Bases: A Brief Review
Acids taste sour and cause certain dyes to change color.
Bases taste bitter and feel soapy.
Arrhenius concept of acids and bases:
An acid is a substance that, w
CHAPTER 17- Buffers and Ksp
17.1 The Common Ion Effect
The dissociation of a weak electrolyte is decreased by the addition of a strong electrolyte that has an ion in common with
the weak electrolyte.
For example, consider the ionization of a
CHAPTER 21- Nuclear Chemistry
When nuclei change spontaneously, emitting energy, they are said to be radioactive.
Nuclear chemistry is the study of nuclear reactions and their uses.
Nucleons are particles in the nucleus:
Charge, location, & mass of subatomic particles
electron configurations of atoms & ions (no orbital
energy associated with electron transitions
molarity, molality, ppm
limiting reagent stoich
STUDY GUIDE AP
CHAPTER 14- Chemical Kinetics
14.1 Factors that Affect Reaction Rates
Chemical kinetics is the study of how fast chemical reactions occur.
There are several important factors which affect rates of reactions:
physical state of the
Assumes both the volume and
shape of its container
Diffusion within gases occurs
Assumes the shape of the portion
the container it occupies
Does not expand to fill container
AP Chemistry Chapter 21 - The Nucleus: A Chemist's View 21.1 Nuclear Stability and Radioactive Decay A. Radioactive Decay 1. Decomposition forming a different nucleus and producing one or more particles a. Total mass number and atomic number must be conse
AP Chemistry A. Allan Chapter 2 Notes - Atoms, Molecules and Ions 2.1 The Early History Refer to the Chemistry History Timeline for this chapter 2.2 Fundamental Chemical Laws A. Law of Conservation of Mass 1. "Mass is neither created nor destroyed" 2. Tra
AP Chemistry A. Allan Chapter 1 Notes - Chemical Foundations 1.1 Chemistry: An Overview A. Reaction of hydrogen and oxygen 1. Two molecules of hydrogen react with one molecule of oxygen to form two molecules of water 2H2 + O2 2H2O 2. Decomposition of wate
AP Chemistry A. Allan Chapter 5 - Gases 5.1 Pressure A. Properties of gases 1. Gases uniformly fill any container 2. Gases are easily compressed 3. Gases mix completely with any other gas 4. Gases exert pressure on their surroundings a. Pressure = force/a
AP Chemistry A. Allan Chapter Six Notes - Thermochemistry 6.1 The Nature of Energy A. Definition 1. Energy is the capacity to do work (or to produce heat*) a. Work is a force acting over a distance (moving an object) b. *Heat is actually a form of energy.
AP Chemistry A. Allan Chapter 4 Notes - Types of Chemical Reactions and Solution Chemistry 4.1 Water, the Common Solvent A. Structure of water 1. Oxygen's electronegativity is high (3.5) and hydrogen's is low (2.1) 2. Water is a bent molecule 3. Water is
AP Chemistry A. Allan Chapter 8 Notes - Bonding: General Concepts 8.1 Types of Chemical Bonds A. Ionic Bonding 1. Electrons are transferred 2. Metals react with nonmetals 3. Ions paired have lower energy (greater stability) than separated ions B. Coulomb'
Chapter 12 - Chemical Kinetics 12.1 Reaction Rates A. Chemical kinetics 1. Study of the speed with which reactants are converted to products B. Reaction Rate 1. The change in concentration of a reactant or product per unit of time A at time t 2 - concentr
Chapter 9 - Covalent Bonding: Orbitals 9.1 Hybridization and the Localized Electron Model A. Hybridization 1. The mixing of two or more atomic orbitals of similar energies on the same atom to produce new orbitals of equal energies B. Hybrid Orbitals 1. Or
Chapter 10 - Liquids and Solids 10.1 Intermolecular Forces A. Dipole-Dipole Forces 1. Attraction between molecules with dipole moments a. Maximizes (+) - ( - ) interactions b. Minimizes (+) - ( + ) and (-) - ( - ) interactions 2. About 1% of strength of i
Chapter 11 Properties of Solutions 11.1 Solution Composition A. Molarity 1. Molarity( M ) = moles solute liters of solution B. Mass Percent mass of solute 1. Mass percent = 100 mass of solution C. Mole Fraction 1. D. Molality 1. Molality = moles of solute