AP QUICK REVIEW
STP = 0 C and 1 atm at STP 1mole = 22.4 L K = C + 273
Molarity and Volume:
M1V1 = M2V2
USE FOR DILUTION PROBLEMS
KEY SOLUBILITY RULES
1. Salts of ammonium
and Group I are always soluble.
Assumes both the volume and
shape of its container
Diffusion within gases occurs
Assumes the shape of the portion
the container it occupies
Does not expand to fill container
STUDY GUIDE AP
CHAPTER 14- Chemical Kinetics
14.1 Factors that Affect Reaction Rates
Chemical kinetics is the study of how fast chemical reactions occur.
There are several important factors which affect rates of reactions:
physical state of the
Charge, location, & mass of subatomic particles
electron configurations of atoms & ions (no orbital
energy associated with electron transitions
molarity, molality, ppm
limiting reagent stoich
CHAPTER 21- Nuclear Chemistry
When nuclei change spontaneously, emitting energy, they are said to be radioactive.
Nuclear chemistry is the study of nuclear reactions and their uses.
Nucleons are particles in the nucleus:
CHAPTER 17- Buffers and Ksp
17.1 The Common Ion Effect
The dissociation of a weak electrolyte is decreased by the addition of a strong electrolyte that has an ion in common with
the weak electrolyte.
For example, consider the ionization of a
AP Chemistry CHAPTER 16 STUDY GUIDE Acid-Base Equilibrium
16.1 Acids and Bases: A Brief Review
Acids taste sour and cause certain dyes to change color.
Bases taste bitter and feel soapy.
Arrhenius concept of acids and bases:
An acid is a substance that, w
AP Chemistry CHAPTER 20- Electrochemistry
20.1 Oxidation States
Chemical reactions in which the oxidation state of a substance changes are
called oxidation-reduction reactions (redox reactions).
Oxidation involves loss of electrons (OIL).
CHAPTER ONE- Matter & Measurement
AP Chemistry Chapter 1 & 2 assignments
Chemistry is the study of properties of materials and changes that they undergo.
Test & homework collection on Wednesday 8/24
1.1 The Atomic and Molecular Perspective of Chemistry
STUDY GUIDE AP Chemistry
CHAPTER NINE- Molecular Geometry and Bonding Theories
Sections 9.1 through 9.6 Only
9.1 Molecular Shapes
Lewis structures give atomic connectivity: they tell us which atoms are physically connected to which atoms.
The shape of a m
AP Chemistry Chapter 8 Lecture Notes- Basic Bonding
8.1 Chemical Bonds, Lewis Symbols, and the Octet Rule
The properties of many materials can be understood in terms of their microscopic properties.
Microscopic properties of molecules include:
AP Chemistry Chapter 7 Lecture Notes
7.1 Development of the Periodic Table
The periodic table is the most significant tool that chemists use for organizing and recalling chemical facts.
Elements in the same column contain the same number of outer-shell el
AP Chemistry Chapter 6 Lecture Notes- Electrons!
6.1 The Wave Nature of Light
Chapter 6 Homework
pg 253 #3, 4, 13, 15, 17, 19, 21, 25, 29
The electronic structure of an atom refers to the arrangement
pg 254 #31, 33, 37a, 47, 49, 51, 53, 57
Chapter 3 Lecture Notes- Stoichiometry
3.1 Chemical Equations
CHAPTER 3 HOMEWORK
The quantitative nature of chemical formulas and reactions is called stoichiometry. 1) pg 110- #1, 3, 4, 5, 6, 9, 15,
Lavoisier observed that mass is conserved in a chemic
AP Chemistry Chapter 5 Lecture Notes
5.1 The Nature of Energy
Thermodynamics is the study of energy and its transformations.
Thermochemistry is the study of the relationships between chemical reactions and energy changes involving heat.
Chapter Four Lecture Notes- Aqueous Reactions and Solution Stoichiometry
CHAPTER 4 HOMEWORK
1) pg 157: #1 - #10, 14, 18, 19,
4.1 General Properties of Aqueous Solutions
A solution is a homogeneous mixture of two or more substances.
A solution is
AP Chemistry Chapter 22 - Organic Chemistry 22.1 Alkanes: Saturated Hydrocarbons A. Straight-chain Hydrocarbons 1. Straight-chain alkanes have the formula C nH2n+2 2. Carbons are sp3 hybridized The First 10 Alkanes Name Formula (C nH2n+2) Methane CH4 Etha
AP Chemistry Chapter 21 - The Nucleus: A Chemist's View 21.1 Nuclear Stability and Radioactive Decay A. Radioactive Decay 1. Decomposition forming a different nucleus and producing one or more particles a. Total mass number and atomic number must be conse
Chapter 15 - Applications of Aqueous Equilibria Acid-Base Equilibria 15.1 Solutions of Acids or Bases Containing a Common Ion A. Common Ion 1. Ion provided in solution by an aqueous acid (or base) as well as a salt a. HF(aq) and NaF (F - in common) HF(aq)
AP Chemistry A. Allan Chapter 18 - The Representative Elements: Groups 1A through 4A 18.1 A Survey of the Representative Elements A. Basic Trends 1. Metals tend to lose electrons and form cations 2. Nonmetals tend to gain electrons and form anions 3. Meta
Chapter 17 Electrochemistry 17.1 Galvanic Cells A. Oxidation-Reduction Reactions (Redox Rxns) 1. Oxidation = loss of electrons a. the substance oxidized is the reducing agent 2. Reduction = gain of electrons a. the subtance reduced is the oxidizing agent
Chapter 14 - Acids and Bases 14.1 The Nature of Acids and Bases A. Arrhenius Model 1. Acids produce hydrogen ions in aqueous solutions 2. Bases produce hydroxide ions in aqueous solutions B. Bronsted-Lowry Model 1. Acids are proton donors 2. Bases are pro
Chapter 16 - Spontaneity, Entropy, and Free Energy 16.1 Spontaneous Processes and Entropy A. First Law 1. "Energy can neither be created nor destroyed" 2. The energy of the universe is constant B. Spontaneous Processes 1. Processes that occur without outs
Chapter 13 - Chemical Equilibrium Intro A. Chemical Equilibrium 1. The state where the concentrations of all reactants and products remain constant with time 2. All reactions carried out in a closed vessel will reach equilibrium a. If little product is fo
AP Chemistry A. Allan Chapter 7 Notes - Atomic Structure and Periodicity 7.1 Electromagnetic Radiation A. Types of EM Radiation (wavelengths in meters) 10-12
4 to 7x10
Radio waves FM short
Chapter 11 Properties of Solutions 11.1 Solution Composition A. Molarity 1. Molarity( M ) = moles solute liters of solution B. Mass Percent mass of solute 1. Mass percent = 100 mass of solution C. Mole Fraction 1. D. Molality 1. Molality = moles of solute
Chapter 10 - Liquids and Solids 10.1 Intermolecular Forces A. Dipole-Dipole Forces 1. Attraction between molecules with dipole moments a. Maximizes (+) - ( - ) interactions b. Minimizes (+) - ( + ) and (-) - ( - ) interactions 2. About 1% of strength of i
Chapter 9 - Covalent Bonding: Orbitals 9.1 Hybridization and the Localized Electron Model A. Hybridization 1. The mixing of two or more atomic orbitals of similar energies on the same atom to produce new orbitals of equal energies B. Hybrid Orbitals 1. Or