Musically, the most important Ofces are (in order) Vespers, Matins and Lauds, and Compline. All the
a) chanting of Scripture passages (lessons) with Responses
b) singing of hymns
c) chanting of Psalms or Psalm verses with antiphons (a liturgi
Early Middle Ages
From the ninth through the eleventh century the political make-up of Europe became
more fragmented. The Carolingian empire divided and subdivided more than once.
especially as the rulers died. Invaders hit from the north, south. and eas