Enables multiple applications to communicate over the network at the same time on a
Ensures that all the data is received reliably and in order by the correct application.
Employs error handling mechanisms.
A host running a web server application and a file transfer application cannot have both
configured to use the same port
When an active server application is assigned to a specific port, that port is considered to
be "open" on the server, meaning that th
Routers can implement different Network layer protocols to operate concurrently over a
network to & from the same or different hosts. The routing performed by these
intermediary devices only considers the contents of the packet header that encapsulates
The IP v4 Protocol- Media Independent
Pv4 and IPv6 operate independently of the media that carry the data at lower layers of the
Any individual IP packet can be communicated electrically over cable, as optical signals
over fiber, or wirel
Reliability operations are supported by control data.
Control data: data that guides a process.
At the Transport layer, there are protocols that specify methods for either
reliable, guaranteed delivery or best-effort delivery.
In the context of networkin
Networks can be grouped based on:
Geography: The network is divided into three smaller ones based on Location.
Purpose: The network is divided into 3 smaller ones based on purpose or department