Lecture 7 - Groups and Territoriality
o Benefits of joining a group should outweigh the costs
Within group, competition arise, something that wouldnt if
they were to forage on their own
The Primary factors affecting Group Formation and Group Siz
Lecture 3 Optimal Solutions
Measuring the costs and benefits and how they optimize the benefits
What is the optimal solution?
How do animals select pray?
When should animals leave one feeding site and go on to another?
How should animals divide their
Lecture 4 Complex Decision Making
Know why certain behaviors occur due to different factors (ontogenetic, evolutionary,
How do animals make complex decisions?
Ex: Chickadees - Leave patch when rate of return for its patch drops below the
Evolutions and Behavior
Morphology and behavior evolve together
o Evolution tends to favor both the morphological changes and
behavioral changes of a species
Most behaviors are the result of an interaction between genes and
environment, but (1) genetic
Lecture 2 - Principle of Parsimony
Search for the simplest explanation for the things that we see, in terms of
Simplest hypothesis you can find to explain certain traits
Ex: swordfish how did the sword part develop?
For behavior, its a littl
Lecture 5 - Orientation and Navigation
One of the most amazing things animals do
How has it evolved?
o Proximate and ontogenetic factors how do they do it? What is the
stimuli? Innate? Learned?
There is not just one proximate mechanisms they have many
Lecture 9 - Competition
Example: Birds colonizes an island. As the number of the competitors
increases, the rewards per individual decrease exponentially
o Smaller curve for small habitat as compared to a rich habitat
o Should the animal be the nth compe
Lecture 10 - Evolutionary Stable Strategy
A strategy which, if adopted by all members of a population, cannot be
invaded by an alternative
o One individuals fighting strategy depends on what others are doing
o The ESS depends on the other st
Lecture 8 - Territoriality
Home range: The area used by an individual or certain group over a specific
o Vervet monkeys: Fight with groups who invade their area
Territory: a defended area
o Song tells others that you occupy that area so that
Lecture 6 - Navigation
o Good at navigation send long distance messages
o Use a combination of global cues (sun) and local cues to help them
o 500 mile trip in about 10 hours (in a relatively straight line)
o There is something in the pi