Learning Class 17 Notes
Parallels between Learned Helplessness and Depression
1. Passivity in both learned helplessness animals and depressed people
2. Difficulty learning in situations in which responses are effective
Difficulty in problem solving depre
Herrnstein (1961) showed that when given a choice, pigeons made twice as many responses to the VI-135 lever as to
the VI-270 lever. They matched their responses to the relative reinforcement contingencies.
Matching Law based on a more molar approach to ov
Chapter Two Reading Notes:
There are more glial cells than neurons in the brain.
Neurons are electrical within; communication is chemical.
MS causes deterioration of myelin sheath information transmission is slowed.
Neurotransmitters are at axon terminals
Chapter 5: Memory
Sensory Memory Working Memory (Short Term) Long-Term Memory
o Consists of a set of registers where we temporarily store incoming sensory
information from the physical environment.
o Visual sensory register
Chapter 3 Reading Notes:
Absolute threshold: The minimum amount of energy in a sensory stimulus detected 50
percent of the time.
o The absolute threshold is the amount of energy that has an equal probability of
being detected or not detected (dim light ex
Chapter 7: Developmental
Prenatal Development and Infancy:
The brain is not fully developed at birth the hippocampus isnt fully developed until
later, therefore we dont have any explicit memories of our infancy.
Human conception begins when a
Chapter 4 Reading Notes:
Classical Conditioning (Pavlov): One stimulus signals the arrival of another.
o New response becomes the conditioned response.
o The conditioned stimulus was previously neutral.
o Both signal the arrival of an unconditioned stimul
1.1.1 - De ne the terms relative ate-mit mass [A r] and relative rnnJequar 111355 [MJ
Febrile Ammit Mass fMThemghted meanefthe mas-Befthe net urd I'grec-turrirq
immenamlein wl'niththe mafmatmnef'reca'bm-Llisetepeeuun:
Thermochemistry Practice Problems
)./ How much heat must be added to a 36.2 9 sample of iron to increase its temperature
by 250.0C? ,
/Z How much heat must be added to 128.62 9 of steam at 126.0C to increase its temperature to
IB Chemistry Notes
Topic: Organic Chemistry
Organic Compounds: Compounds that are based on carbon, carbon-carbon
Bond Dipole: Every polar bond has a bond dipole(a partial negative charge
and a partial positive charge on opposite
Expressing & Measuring
The area of chemistry that is concerned with the speeds, or rates, of reactions.
Expressing Reaction Rates
The speed of an event is defined as the change that occurs in a given interval of time.
What is the correct Lewis structure for hypochlorous acid, a compound containing chlorine,
hydrogen and oxygen?
: Cl : O : H :
: Cl : H : O :
: Cl : O : H
O : Cl : H
(Total 1 mark)
Which compound forms hyd
1. Fill in the blanks:
First appeared _ years ago.
Multicellular and _ organisms.
Since they are photosunthetic and contain _, they are _.
Believed to have evolved from _ algae.
Cellulose is a type of _ molecule that compose
Akash, Naomi & Swaathy
Figure 1.4 - The Average Height of Plants Grown in Light and Dark Areas for 5 days
Average Height of Plant (cm)
Plant Grown in Light
Plant Grown in Dark
Figure 1.4: This graph plots the average
Post Lab Questions
1. What examples of physical and chemical properties did you observe in this
2. Analyze your observations to identify what changes were present in stations
A through H. Explain using evidence.
12.3 How do attitudes guide behavior?
Attitudes: feelings, opinions, and beliefs; peoples evaluations of objects, of events, or of
People form attitudes through experience and socialization
o People develop negative attitudes about new things more
Social Psychology: social psychology scientifically studies how we think about, influence, and relate to
Social Behavior Social Influence
Mere presence effects
o Behavior is influenced by the presence of an audience.
Two forms of influence w
Social Behavior Altruism
o Prosocial Behavior: acting for the benefit of others
o Altruism: helping when it is needed without any apparent reward for doing so
Bystander Effect: Tendency for any given bystander to be less likely to give
Psychopathology: The study of mental disorders
o Mental health workers view psychological disorders as persistently harmful
thoughts, feelings, and action.
Causes discomfort/concern in oth
Definition: Schizophrenia is a mental disorder that affects how people feel, think, and behave.
People with the severe chronic disorder may feel as if they have lost touch with reality. It
interferes with the ability to think clearly,
Psychology Test 4: Hock Readings
Thoughts Out of Tune: L. Festinger and J. M. Carlsmith
Studies have shown that when your behavior is contrary to your attitude, your attitude
will change to bring it into alignment with your behavior
People who were paid
Psychology Test 4 Key Terms
Elaboration likelihood model: persuasive communication leads to attitude change in
two fundamental ways:
o When people are motivated to process information and are able to process that
information, persuasion takes the central
Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Brief Overview
Autism Spectrum Disorders
o Autistic disorder
o Aspergers disorder
o Pervasive developmental disorder
o Childhood disintegrative disorder
o Deficits in social communication and social interac
Social psychology scientifically studies how we think about, influence, and relate to one
o Peoples evaluations of objects, events, or ideas
o Attitudes are learned, but they can be changed
Changing Attitudes: Persu
The structure of a Neuron
Neurons: cells that transmit information within the nervous system
o Glial cells (glia): cells in the nervous system that comprise the support system for
Dendrites: fibers projecting out of the
How the Physical World Relates to the Psychological World
Detection Question: What is the minimum amount of energy in a stimulus that humans can
Absolute threshold: the minimum amount of energy in a sensory stimulus detected 50%
Learning Through Classical Conditioning
Classical conditioning: acquiring a new response (the conditioned response) to a
previously neutral stimulus (the conditioned stimulus) that reliably signals the arrival of
an unconditioned stimulus
Three-Stage Model of Memory
Sensory memory (SM): the set of sensory registers, one for each of our senses, that
serves as holding places for incoming sensory information until it can be attended to,
interpreted, and encoded into
The Four Major Research Perspectives
Psychology: the science of behavior and mental processes
Perspectives Emphasizing Internal Factors
Biological perspective: a research perspective whose major explanatory focus is how the
brain, nervous syst