"Of Justice" from Summa Theologica
What is Justice? Whether Justice is always toward another? Whether it is a virtue? Whether the mean of Justice is the real mean? Whether the act of Justice is to render to everyone his own?
The Existence of God Reason and Faith God's Attributes. Chance or Design? Cosmological Argument Ontological Argument. God: The Necessary Being? The Problem of Evil Agnosticism
PHILOSOPHY OF RELIGION
Philosophy of Religion How is god/God to be conceived? W
West: Plato Socrates The Republic Thomas Hobbes Leviathan John Locke East Confucius Buddha Feminism Elizabeth Cady Stanton
What is Justice? What is the relationship between the individual and the state? What is the best form of Gover
What is Metaphysics?
What is Real? Metaphysics, inquires, presupposes some theory of what is real, and of what exists? Metaphysics is closely related to Epistemology; in the same way that Epistemology asks, What is Knowledge and how does it differ from o
Politics of Aristotle: A Feminist Perspective.
Virtue is formed by training in habit. " none of our moral virtues are implanted in us by nature, because natural characteristics can never be altered by training." ". the virtues are not formed in us by nat
GENDER INEQUALITY IN CHINA AND CULTURAL RELATIVISM by Xiaorong Li Examination of Women's Quality of Life Political Ideology Traditional Norms Women's Perception
Gender Inequality in China
ASPEC TS S O C IA L M a r r ia g e la w IIN D IV ID U A L E d u c a
HUMAN RIGHTS & JUSTICE
"We hold these truths to be self-evident; that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their creator with certain unalienable rights, that among these are life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness."
Natural Rights and H
The Justification of Morality and the Behavior of Women James P. Sterba
Morality and Rationality Morality is not only rationally permissible Other rational action could also be permissible i.e egoism/immorality. Morality is rationally required Excludes ac
A Theory of Justice "Justice as Fairness" John Rawls
A Definition of Justice. At the center of the basic structure of society is "the original agreement." The original agreement is the set of principles that any rational being would accept in "an initial
Moral Orientation and Moral Development
Moral Orientation & Moral Perspective
The perception of any phenomena, any reality and any event, imply a judgment.
The judgment not only depends on the specific features of the phenomena, but also
A Non-Relative Virtues: An Aristotelian Approach Martha Nussbaum
Aristotelian Ethics. ". ethics is not an exact science, any more than are medicine and the art of navigation; and consequently the rules of conduct that it lays down are only of general vali
The Study of Ethics ?
Right & Wrong Principles Rules Standard Value
As a collective
What are Morals?
The mores of people The set of principles after observing their conduct A
Plato's Ethics: Moral Truths are UNIVERSAL MORAL OBJECTIVISM Ethical Theory derives from the WORLD OF FORMS Moral Virtue is based on knowledge of the Form of Good. Humans attain the Good through reason
". foundation of the state, that one man sh
Simone de Beauvoir The Second Sex
Feminism and Beauvoir
What is a woman? How did all begin? Should the state of affairs continue? How can independence be recovered in a stage of dependency? Is a world where men and women equal easy to visualize?
How to Manage the Transition from Natural to Civil Coexistence? & A Two Subject Culture
How to Manage the Transition from Natural to Civil Coexistence? The source and nature of the self's identity rests on both the community and the individu
democracy begins between two
General Remarks I:
Irigaray wants to rescue and recover what has been ignored: the place of women in the traditional canon of thought. Her philosophical work rests, not solely on finding the place but it constit
Human Nature and Personal Identity
Who or what are we? Plato, Aristotle, Christianity Death/Freedom-Existentialism The Influence of Western Essentialism on Women (Religion (Genesis/Politics (Aristotle/Spelman). Human Community(Menkiti).
Who or What are we
The Fundamental questions of Epistemology: How do I learn what I do not know? Is knowledge Possible? Inductive Reasoning Deductive Reasoning Is certainty Possible? The Problem of Criterion of Truth? Should we believe beyond evidence?
Is certainty Possible? Is it possible for epistemology to arrive at any certain knowledge? How would it go about finding it?
Descartes' Meditations and Discourse of Method
There is an intrinsic method in Descartes' Meditation. This method
Aristotle and Justice
Is Justice a Virtue? Political Virtue. General Justice. The Relation of Justice to Just Action. The Relation of Voluntary Action to Just Action and to Justice.
Justice is a Virtue
Justice occurs within the state - Polis The State i
A Definition of Justice from " The Metaphysical Elements of Justice."
The Definition of Justice
Justice cannot be defined empirically - by experienceby the conditions in which an action takes place From a Legal perspective a jurist can tell
There is no ordering principle, neither social or rational, for any ethical values, not even political ones. Value is a social phenomena. "Absolute justice is an irrational ideal, an illusion one of the eternal illusions of mankind"
John Stuart Mill
" On the connection between Justice and Utility" from `Utilitarianism'
Justice is defined in the context of Human Affairs The methodology: Justice and Un-justice as moral attributes- it is best defined by its opposites. Action vs. Sentime
Thomas Aquinas (1225-1274) Ethics is grounded in the Natural Law implanted by God, as interpreted by Aristotle.
Aristotle and Christianity Fundamental Differences The Universe Human Nature Morality- Good Life
Aristotle The universe was not created by a lo
Ethics in Ancient Greece
"School of Athens" by Rafael
Aristotle's Philosophy Aristotle attempted to systematize all areas of knowledge. Aristotle did not look somewhere where eternal truths reign. He looked for ultimate truths in the world of human experi
Augustine (354-430) City of God Confessions
Morality and Religion Greek Philosophy and Christianity ReasonRationality Plato - Aristotle City of the State Virtue Cosmologyordering of the world Faith- Revelation City of God God's Code Law Christ Cosmogonyor
Friedrich Nietzsche (1844- 1890)
Beyond Good and Evil
The Free Spirit- "The Over man"
Nietzsche's attacks on Traditional Western Morality and the Christian Morality is the Morality of `Good and Evil' Western Morality has been created based on two concept
MODERN PHILOSOPHY The term modern is applied to the thoughts of the XVII century. Modern- implies a break between medieval and post-medieval philosophy. Modern Philosophers were convinced that there is a sharp division between the old philosophical tradit
Jean Paul Sartre 19051980 Existentialism is a Humanism "Existence precedes Essence"
The concept of value: Plato and Aristotle refer to Human Nature to distinguish Right and Wrong/Pain and Pleasure Aristotle and the practical use of the golden mean gave va