On February 19, 1942, Roosevelt authorized the Department of War to designate military
areas and allowed it to remove any people from the areas. Military authorities immediately
moved against Japanese foreigners. In Hawaii, where residents of Japanese anc
The Northern Renaissance ( England)
Hanseatic League: a merchant organization that controlled trade throughout Northern
Trade helped ideas of the Italian Renaissance spread to the North.
- Cast letters of the alphabet onto metal
What is a P.E.R.S.I.A D.C. Chart?
- Think of each letter as a lens that you will use to understand the structure and
history of each civilization.
Rivers were important for civilizations because it provided not only water source but also
a way to ferti
- Advocate of violence
- Leader of the Paris San Culottes
- Editor of the Revolutionary newspaper
- Violent agitator
- Popular with the public
- Would later come to oppose the excesses of the Revoluti
What is a civilization?
- A complex culture ( a people's unique way of life) that meets the 5 key
characteristics of a civilization
- People that practice a certain skill or trade
- Not just farmers
- skilled workers have leisure time
- 1600s philosophers began to view reason as the best way to understand the
- People believed reason could solve all human problems
- Period of optimism and possibility.
- Also known as the Age of Reason
New Views o
- Their work renewed the churches emphasis on spirituality and service.
- Name means The Society of Jesus.
- Order was founded in 1534, by Ignatius of Loyola
- Approved by the pope in 1539
- Emphasized obedience to the church above all else.
- Increased trade with Asia and other regions in result of the Crusades
- Growth of large, wealthy city-states in Italy
- Renewed interest in the classical learning of Ancient Greece and Rome.
- Merchants became wealthy and powerful
Trench warfare: fighting a battle through trenches
Life in trenches was miserable. Rain, mud, lice, poor sanitation, and the dead were all
down there in the trenches.
New Types of Weapons
- Different types of gas did differen
Vasco de Gama: Portuguese explorer who led the 1st naval expedition from Europe to
sail to India, opening an important commercial sea route.
Vasco Nunez de Balboa: Spanish explorer who discovered the Pacific Ocean.
Amerigo Vespucci: Italian explorer who
Congress of Vienna: restore order and stability in Europe after Napoleonic Wars
4 Major Countries
- Main Person: Prince Klemens von Metternich (Austria) leads the meeting.
- Was a reactionary which means that he oppos
Protestant Reformation (England)
- Dissatisfaction with the church: unhappy with taxes, disproved indulgences,
approved by Pope Leo X.
- Indulgences: pardons issued by the pope that people could buy to reduce a
souls time in purgatory.
Battle of Verdun
- Meant solely to kill or injure as many French soldiers as possible
- France suffered 400,000 casualties
- Germany endured nearly as many.
- Both sides were weakened, so a stalemate (neither side was advancing, like a break in a
Desertification: spread of desert-like conditions.
Global Warming: the rise in the surface temperature of the Earth over time.
Things that are harming the environment: deforestation, desertification rapidly in Africa,
Asia, and Latin America, and globa
Civilization: a complex culture (a persons unique way of life) that meets the 5 key
- Large population
- Center for trade, learning, culture
- Large scale farming
- Infrastructure: basic frame work of
(1945) Soviet satellites formed in the Eastern Bloc: refused to remove it and imposed
(1945) US uses atomic bomb against Japan: July 26, 1945-US demands for Japan to
surrender. They did not. Aug 6, 1945, the atomic bomb was dropped on Hiroshim
5 major World Religions
5 major World Religions
- There is no known founder of Hinduism
Mercantilism: a new economic policy
- Basic Principle was that a nations power depends on its wealth
- Wealth was measured by how much gold and silver a nation possessed.
- Led to intense competition between nations for wealth during the 1500s and 1600s.
Divine Rights: the king believes that his power comes from God and that they only have to
answer to God.
The Monarchy of Louis XIV (14th)
Rise of the Sun King : Louis XIV, the Sun was his personal symbol
- Best example of an absolute monarchy
- Became kin
Developed as a means to protect the peasants from invaders.
Kings were not very powerful on their own and need the help of nobles to protect the
people and the kingdom.
The Feudal System
- Fiefs: giving of land in exchange for service.
Tradition Based Economy: based on traditions, customs, laws, rituals, and religion.
Capitalism: economic system in which individuals and companies own the business and
operate for profit.
Command Economy: economic system in which the government controls