1
In Search of the Aether Lorentz and Fitzgerald Summary
2
b l a l c
3
Swimmer 1
Swimmer 2
4
Swimmer 1 l
( ct1 ) = l + ( vt1 )
2 2
2
Swimmer 2
ct2 = l vt2
ct3 = l + vt3
l
l
5
Swimmer 1 total time
T1 = 2t1 =
2l c v
2 2
Swimmer 2 total time
l l T2 = t2 + t3

1
Quantum States of Hydrogen Electron Spin The Pauli Exclusion Principle Atomic Structure Summary
2
We have seen that three quantum numbers n, l, m are needed to specify a quantum state of the hydrogen atom
n = 1, 2, 3, . l = 0,1, 2, ., n 1 m = l , l

1
Transitions and Atomic Spectra Scattering The Laser Summary
2
Transitions between different energy levels determine the spectra of atoms (and molecules). But not all transitions are equally likely: Allowed transitions Satisfy the selection rule l = 1

1
Hydrostatic Equilibrium Quantum Pressure Compact Stars Summary
2
3
Pressure exterior to shell
Pressure due to gravity
Pressure interior to shell
4
The gravitational force on the shell is
where m(r) is the mass enclosed in radius r
5
The pressure differe

1
Introduction A Century of Particle Physics The Standard Model Summary
2
Particle physics, also known as high energy physics, is the study of
the the and
fundamental structure of matter fundamental forces with which matter interacts the structure of s

1
Rules of the Standard Model Particle Physics Experiments Beyond the Standard Model Summary
2
3
The Standard Model (SM) contains the detailed rules by which particles interact. Many of these rules are stated in terms of quantum numbers, rather like the

Nuclear Nuclear Physics 2
1
Topics Topics
Liquid drop model Radioactivity Nuclear Reactions Nuclear Fusion Summary
2
Nuclear Nuclear Models liquid drop model
liquid drop model (Bohr, Bethe, Weizscker): nucleus = drop of incompressible nuclear fluid. drop

1
Introduction The Ionic Bond The Covalent Bond Summary
2
Molecules are quantum systems in which at least two nuclei interact with one or more electrons For example, the N2 molecule consists of an assembly of 2 nuclei and 14 electrons.
In general, it is

1
Recap Free Electron Gas in Metals The Einstein Model of a Solid Summary
2
The number of particles (here electrons) with energy in the small interval E to E + dE is given by
where,
E+dE E
V 4 p 2 dp g ( E ) dE = W h3
is the number of states in that i

1
Quantum Theory of Conduction Band Theory of Solids Summary
2
3
In an infinitely large, perfect, crystal calculations show that the free electrons suffer no scattering. In real crystals, electrons scatter off lattice imperfections and the thermal vibra

1
The Schrdinger Equation in 3-D Central Potentials Angular Momentum Summary
2
The symbol
means differentiate the function f with respect to x only while treating the remaining variables as constants. Similarly for y and z. Example:
3
The time-indepen

1
Atomic Spectra The Rutherford Model The Bohr Model Summary
2
Please study The Photoelectric Effect
The
Compton Effect
0 + e0 = + e
( 0 )2 = (e e0 )2 E 0 + Ee0 = E + Ee hc / 0 + mc 2 = hc / + Ee
3
http:/hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/HBASE/quantum/imgq

1
Einsteins Early Years Special Relativity Postulates Simultaneity Summary
2
Hermann Einstein
Albert
Pauline Einstein
3
Marcel Grossman
Einstein entered the Eidgenssische Technische Hochschule, Zurich in 1896. Graduated in 1900.
4
Einstein got a job at th

1
Recap Length Contraction Cosmic Ray Muons Spacetime Summary
2
Postulates of Relativity Laws of physics are the same in all inertial frames The speed of light in vacuum is independent of the motion of the light source Relativity of Simultaneity Events

1
Paradoxes Twin Temporal The Lorentz Transformation Velocity Transformation Summary
2
2030 2028
Anns Now in 2030
E-mail sent by Betty in 2016, Bettys time, received by Ann in 2028, Anns time.
Anns Now in 2020
2020 2013.6 2012 2010 8 light years
E-mail

1
Spacetime Vectors Relativistic Motion Examples Summary
2
The values ct, x, y, z can be regarded as the components of a vector in spacetime, a 4-vector
The components of same vector can be expressed in a different frame of reference
3
t
What is the map

1
Examples: Spacetime Geometries Black Holes Morris-Thorne Wormholes The Global Positioning System Summary
2
3
Event horizon
rS
Karl Schwarzschild 1873 - 1916
4
Far from the black hole, centered at r = 0, the Schwarzschild metric
dr 2 ds 2 = c 2 (1 rs /

Quantum Theory Quantum 1
1
Topics
q
Discovery of the Electron Millikans Experiment Blackbody Radiation An Act of Desperation Summary
2
q
q
q
q
The Discovery of the Electron
q
q
q
q
1838 M. Faraday q Discovery of arc light in dilute gas 1857 H. Geissler q

Quantum Theory Quantum 3
1
Topics
q
Wave-Particle Duality The Schrdinger Equation Interpretation of Wavefunction Summary
q
q
q
2
Wave-Particle Duality
In 1905, Einstein interpreted Plancks quantum as a particle of light, now called a photon, and showed ho

Quantum Theory Quantum 4
1
Topics
q
The 1-D Square Well The 1-D Harmonic Oscillator Quantum Tunneling Summary
q
q
q
2
Recap
In late 1925, building on de Broglies idea, Erwin Schrdinger proposed the =h following wave equation /2p
it = H t H =
2
2m
+ V (r

Quantum Theory Quantum 5
1
Topics
q
Quantum States Quantum Theory of Polarizers Quantum Entanglement Quantum Teleportation Summary
2
q q q q
Quantum States Quantum
State Vectors A system is described by listing its base states, represented by the vectors

1
Recap Mapping Spacetime When Is Now? Summary
2
Moving clocks run more slowly Moving lengths contract longitudinally Spacetime is the set of all events Space is any 3-D hyper-surface on which events are simultaneous, for some observer Time is the direc

1
The Principle of Equivalence Flat and Curved Space The Schwarzschild Geometry Summary
2
All objects fall with the same acceleration
G. Galileo 15641642
3
A person falling off a building experiences no gravity! The happiest thought of my life Albert Eins

PHY3101 Special Relativity Notes
Harrison B. Prosper September, 2009
Notation u speed of an object relative to a frame of reference v relative speed between two frames of reference c speed of light in vacuum = v/c t, x, y, z time and space coordinates in