SYLLABUS:
Course Number and Title: EML 4450/5451, Energy Conversion Systems for Sustainability
Term & Year: Fall 2006
Course Meeting Time(s): (twice weekly for 1 hr. and 15 min.) T Th10:15 11:30am
Course Meeting Location(s): COE A225
CONTACT INFORMATION:
DOE/EIA-0484(2006)
International
Energy Outlook
2006
June 2006
Energy Information Administration
Office of Integrated Analysis and Forecasting
U.S. Department of Energy
Washington, DC 20585
This publication is on the WEB at:
www.eia.doe.gov/oiaf/ieo/index
Givens:
Angle of attack ():
Wind Velocity (u):
u := 5
m
s
, 5.05
m
s
. 10
m
:= 4deg
s
Rotor Diameter (D):
R :=
D := 50m
Area of Rotar (A)
D
2
R = 25 m
Angular Velocity ():
Number of Rotors (n):
:= 25rpm
n := 3
T = 2.618
T :=
2
A := R
rad
s
cp_max := .5
EML 4550/5451 Energy Conversion Systems for Sustainability
Homework # 9
Due: Tuesday November 16, 2006
Topic: Wind turbine performance calculation
The power produced by a wind turbine can be expressed as
P=
1
cp Au 3
2
where:
cp = coefficient of power
=
Problem: Plot the power output and thermodynamic efficiency against the current density for a fuel cell.
Givens:
R := 1.99
cal
H := 68.320
F := 23060
T := 298K
mol K
kcal
2
A s := 72cm
mol
:= .625
n := 2
cal
V mol
p g := .21
Voc := 1.22V
A
JL := .954
2
c
EML 4550/5451 Energy Conversion Systems for Sustainability
Homework # 8
Due: Tuesday November 7, 2006
CLEARLY STATE ANY ASSUMPTIONS
Topic: Fuel cell performance calculation
For the example problem discussed in the class, using your own calculations
reprod
1. Examine how the ideal efficiency of a simple hydrogen-oxygen fuel cell changes as its operating
temperature is raised from 298K to 750K:
Given:
T := 298, 299. 750
kJ := 1000J
Constants:
6
ah2o := 30.62644
b h2o := .009621
ch2o := 1.18 10
ah2 := 28.9140
EML 4550/5451 Energy Conversion Systems for Sustainability
Homework # 7
Due: Tuesday October 31, 2006
Topic: Fuel cell calculation
Examine how the ideal efficiency of a simple hydrogen-oxygen fuel cell changes as its
operating temperature is raised from 2
HW #6 Homework Solutions
Power desired
P := 2500W
19
eV := 1.6021764610
Givens on the photons:
W
:= .059
av := 1.25eV
2
1
17
Nph := 4.8 10
2
s cm
cm
Converter Properties:
5
p := 10
2
p := 400
g := 1.11eV
cm
V s
7
n := 10
s
s
J
2
n := 1000
cm
V s
19
EML 4550/5451 Energy Conversion Systems for Sustainability
Homework # 6
Due: Tuesday October 17, 2006
CLEARLY STATE ANY ASSUMPTIONS
Topic: Design of a photovoltaic converter
We wish to design a solar power plant that produces 2500 watts. The energy of the
EML 4550/5451 Energy Conversion Systems for Sustainability
Homework # 5
Due: Tuesday October 3, 2006
CLEARLY STATE ANY ASSUMPTIONS
Topic: Steam cycle analysis
For the steam cycle below, calculate
1. Mass flows in b. and c.
2. The electrical power output
3
EML 4550/5451 Energy Conversion Systems for Sustainability
Homework # 4
Due: Tuesday September 26, 2006
CLEARLY STATE ANY ASSUMPTIONS
SHOW YOUR CALCULATIONS
Topic: Solar radiation on an optimally inclined collector
1. For each month calculate the average
HW #3 Solutions
1. Compare the total purchase cost of a nominally 2.5 kW (peak) photovoltaic system for the
following three choices of solar modules:
Assume Peak intensity of 1kW/m^2
a) First generation crystalline silicon modules of 15% energy conversion
EML 4550/5451 Energy Conversion Systems for Sustainability
Homework # 3
Due: Tuesday September 19, 2006
CLEARLY STATE ANY ASSUMPTIONS
Topic: Estimating the cost of electricity using photovoltaics
1. Compare the total purchase costs of a nominally 2.5 kW (
1. 20 points
Calculate the annual CO2 emissions based on the energy that was actually used
over the past year.
Electricity used over past year: 7016 kWh
The city of Tallahassee gets 95% of its power from natural gas and 5% from coal.
Electricity from natu
EML 4550/5451 Energy Conversion Systems for Sustainability
Homework # 2
Tuesday September 5, 2006
Due: Tuesday September 12, 2006
CLEARLY STATE ANY ASSUMPTIONS
Topic: Calculation of CO2 emissions and your impact on the environment
Using your results from
Homework #1
Electricity usage for my apartment for 2005-2006:
Month
Aug
J ul
J un
May
Apr
Mar
Feb
J an
D ec
N ov
Oc t
Sept
Total
Average
K Whr
712
589
568
647
492
639
490
378
578
673
600
650
7016
585
Cost $
$1,027.84
$85.65
Cost of Electricity: 14.65 per
EML 4550/5451 Energy Conversion Systems for Sustainability
Homework # 1
Tuesday August 29, 2006
Due: Tuesday September 5, 2006
CLEARLY STATE ANY ASSUMPTIONS
Topic: Powering your home and calculation of energy use
Considering the house/apartment that you a
Sustainable Energy Science and Engineering Center
Hydropower
See the notes in Compedu
http:/www.energy.kth.se/compedu/webcompedu/index.html
Source: Marianne Salomon @ KTH
Sustainable Energy Science and Engineering Center
Global Renewable Energy
Source: IE
Sustainable Energy Science and Engineering Center
Bio Fuel Production
Reference: Donald L. Klass, Biomass for Renewable Energy,
Fuels and Chemicals, Academic Press, 1998.
http:/www.energy.kth.se/compedu/webcompedu/media/Lecture_note
s/S1B11C2.pdf
http:/ww
Sustainable Energy Science and Engineering Center
Biomass for Energy and Fuel
Reference: Donald L. Klass, Biomass for Renewable Energy,
Fuels and Chemicals, Academic Press, 1998.
http:/www.energy.kth.se/compedu/webcompedu/media/Lectu
re_notes/S1B11C2.pdf
Sustainable Energy Science and Engineering Center
GEOTHERMAL ENERGY
Sustainable Energy Sources
Source: http:/geothermal.marin.org/GEOpresentation
Sustainable Energy Science and Engineering Center
Earths Temperature Profile
Source: http:/geothermal.marin.o
Sustainable Energy Science and Engineering Center
Ocean Energy
Reference: Renewable Energy by Godfrey Boyle, Oxford
University Press, 2004.
Sustainable Energy Science and Engineering Center
Ocean Energy
Oceans cover most of the (70%) of the earths surface
Sustainable Energy Science and Engineering Center
Wind Energy - Aerodynamics
Sustainable Energy Science and Engineering Center
Wind Turbine Aerodynamics
One dimensional momentum theory
Assumptions:
Incompressible, inviscid, steady state flow
Infinite numb
Sustainable Energy Science and Engineering Center
Wind Energy
References
Chapter 15 - Text Book
Wind Energy, Explained by J.F. Manwell, J.G. McGowan and A.L.
Rogers, John Wiley, 2002.
Wind Energy Hand Book, T. Burton, D. Sharpe, N. Jenkins and E.
Bossanyi
Sustainable Energy Science and Engineering Center
Fuel Cell Systems and
Hydrogen Production
Sustainable Energy Science and Engineering Center
Fuel Cell Type
< 5kW
5 - 250kW
< 100W
250kW
250kW - MW
2kW - MW
Sustainable Energy Science and Engineering Center
Sustainable Energy Science and Engineering Center
Direct Energy Conversion: Fuel Cells
References and Sources:
Direct Energy Conversion by Stanley W. Angrist, Allyn and Beacon,
1982.
Fuel Cell Systems, Explained by James Larminie and Andrew Dicks,
Wiley,
Sustainable Energy Science and Engineering Center
Basic Fuel Cell Reactions
The overall reaction of a PEM fuel cell is:
1
H 2 + O2 H 2O
2
This reaction is the same as the reaction of hydrogen combustion, which is
an exothermic process (energy is released)