The Gettier Problem
A. The standard analysis of knowledge
S knows that p if and only if (iff):
1. S believes that p
2. S is justified in believing that p
3. p is true
1, 2, and 3 are NECESSARY for knowledge. 1, 2, and 3 are SUFFICIENT for knowledge.
Linda Zagzebski, Virtues of the Mind
The Intuition Behind Virtue Epistemology
Consider the Norman (the Reliable Clairvoyant) case. What is Norman missing?
Virtue Epistemology: Norman reasons reliably, but he lacks an intellectual virtue. (He doesnt
Stich: A Pragmatic Account of Cognitive Evaluation
1. Stichs Program: How to correctly assess cognitive systems (ways of reasoning).
Note: He is not interested in providing an account of knowledge or justification.
2. Stichs View of Analytic Epistemology:
The Proper Role of Intuitions in Epistemology
ADAM FELTZ & MICHAEL BISHOP
Intuitions play an important role in contemporary philosophy. It is common for theories in epistemology, morality, semantics and metaphysics to
be rejected because they are inconsis
Greco: Virtues and Vices of Virtue Epistemology
A virtue is an ability to non-accidentally achieve certain results under certain conditions.
A virtuous cognitive mechanism is a cognitive mechanism that reliably produces (or maintains)
There is little agreement about what exactly naturalized epistemology really is. But it involves paying serious
attention to science (usually psychology) in doing epistemology.
Weinberg, Nichols, Stich (WNS)
1. Epistemic Romantici
Roderick Chisholms Foundationalism: Basic (Directly Evident) Beliefs
1. Certain states or propositions are SELF-PRESENTING
H is self-presenting for S at time t =
H occurs (is true) at t; and
necessarily, if H occurs (is true) at t, then H is evident for S
Feltz & Bishop: The proper role of intuitions in epistemology
The Issue: Insofar as we aim at developing a correct epistemological theory: Ought we to trust our epistemic intuitions for
or against our epistemological theories?
The Answer: It depends. What
1. Evidence: Intuitions & Ameliorative Psychology
Ameliorative Psychology: Those branches of psychology that explicitly offer positive advice about how we
ought to reason. Some of that advice:
How to predict the success of electrosho
Reliabilism and its critics
Reliabilism is (typically viewed as) a theory of justification. It has received a lot of attention. Some people think
its obviously true (or at least on the right track); and others think it is obviously false.
1. Intuitive sup
Feminism and Epistemology
The Importance of Feminist Critique for Contemporary Cell Biology
The Biology and Gender Study Group
Thesis: Biology is a victim of sexist stereotypes. Biology needs to impose feminist critiques on its research to
serve as a kind
John Hardwig: Epistemic dependence (1985)
Pervasive model of rationality in epistemology since Descartes: Think for yourself!
Hardwig: This individualistic view of rationality is romantic and unrealistic. There is so much to know, we
1. Basic idea: Whether a true belief counts as knowledge depends on the context. Context can raise or lower
standards for knowledge. Examples:
I know I have hands. TRUE
I know I ha
Alston: An Internalist Externalism
Justified beliefs are beliefs that are based on an adequate ground.
A belief is BASED ON A GROUND: An internalist notion.
A ground is ADEQUATE: An externalist notion.
Internalism: Alstons Two Prongs
Prong #1: The intuiti
Motivating Internalism: The problems of infinite regress & skepticism
Two of the oldest and most challenging epistemological problems are the problem of skepticism and
the infinite regress problem. Most internalist theories attempt to provide some sort of
Foundationalism and Coherentism are views about the structure of justification: the nature of the relationship
between our justified beliefs.
I. Standard Foundationalism
1. BASIC beliefs are justified beliefs whose justification does not d
Coherentism: A belief is justified iff it is part of a coherent belief-system.
Analogy: Web (vs. Building w/ foundation)
I. BonJours account of coherence
A belief system is coherent to the extent that:
1. its beliefs are logically consistent
Goldman: A causal theory of knowing
1. Goldmans diagnosis of the Gettier problem:
The problem is that there is no causal connection between the fact that makes p true and Ss belief that p.
Smith believes that the man who will get the job has 1
Reliabilism as a Theory of Rationality:
Or How to Solve the Generality Problem Without Really Trying
Reliability is a property of cognitive mechanisms. It is curious, then, that philosophers
should take reliabilism to be a theory of justified belief. My t