Dualism & Rene Descartes
French [but lived in Holland]
philosopher and mathematician
Math: Cartesian coordinate plane!
Dualist [metaphysics] and
Dualist: both immaterial mind and
The Unconscious Violinist
You wake up in the morning and find yourself back to back in bed with an unconscious violinist.
A famous unconscious violinist. He has been found to have a fatal kidney ailment, and the
Society of Music Lovers has canvassed all t
What is the nature of reality and existence?
Why is there a universe at all?
Is there such a thing as free will?
Does the world exist outside the mind?
Where does our personal identity (consciousness) come from?
How do we know
Practice for Thought Experiments Assessment:
On two separate sheets of paper, follow the steps below.
(1) Design a thought experiment on abortion that DOES NOT LOOK LIKE the sleeping
violinist. That means you may try and capture the same variables (like p
423 BCE to 348 BCE
One of big three Greek philosophers
Student of Socrates, mentor to Aristotle
Arguably most important philospher in
Plato and Metaphysics
Plato is an idealist: he believes wisdom
comes from reason abo
Introduction to Philosophy
[email protected]; [email protected]
Overview: Philosophy combines two ancient Greek words: philo, which means loving; and sophia which means
wisdom. Philosophy is the love of wisdom. It occupies a space
Morality and Ethics continued
Part I. Review
Review/Do: We are continuing to discuss morality (identifying right from wrong) and ethics
(codes of proper conduct.) We have introduced two basic approaches: duty-based and
consequence based systems.
This Unit: Metaphysics
(epistemology) and Thought
The brain-in-a-vat is a thought experiment
Metaphysics: The study of the nature of
reality and existence. What is real?
Epistemology: Separate but closely related
MENOS PARADOX (PLATO)
In one of Platos dialogues, using his mentor, Socrates, to drive a discussion, the ancient Greek
philosopher introduces Menos Paradox. A paradox are two totally competing concepts that
exist at the same time; one should not be true i
What is real? Concrete substances; stuff
made out of atoms and molecules.
Reality exists independently of human
But it is knowable t
1. Tell me three things about Immanuel Kant.
Kants moral philosophy focuses on the _ behind an action rather
than the _ of that action.
3. Kants moral philosophy is most associated with what two word term ?
4. Using Kants three step criteria (an
Directions. On a separate sheet of paper, after discussing the following in small groups, explain whether the
following is a just or unjust war according to the standard set forth in the material Mr. Wexler provided and
explained to you. Each group should
Epistemology and Skepticism
Metaphysics: What is real?
Epistemology: How you discover what is
What is the difference between
opinion and knowledge?
Most would say: Knowledge is founded
upon something solid; opinion
History of Philosophy
We are studying Western philosophy there are Eastern (which we
may get to before the end of the year).
Periods of Western Philosophy
Skip spaces between them
Greeks/Romans (500 BCE to 200 BCE)
Scholasticism 500 CE to 1350 CE
Our unit assessment: Our unit assessment on Metaphysics/Thought Experiments (and other future units) will have three
(1) Technique: Create an original thought experiment at home; analyze your own; critique
And both of the following will oc
The Unconscious Violinist
Isolating the variables in the unconscious
violinist. Can you identify each of the below (one
is given as an example):
waking up attached = unwanted pregnacy
9 months of physical connection =
The unconscious violinist =