Six or more glasses.
ASSESSING THE ADEQUACY OF DIETS
How are we to know that the diet planned is adequate nutritionally? Among
the many procedures available for assessing the nutritive value of diets, the simplest
one is the 'score card' method. Using the
Vegetable low in starch lend themselves to being served raw. For the
majority of vegetables, however, cooking is necessary to make them more palatable
and digestible by softening the fibre and cooking the starch. The colour, texture,
flavour, nutritive va
terms of meals and distributing the different foods among the m'~als
taken during the day are very important in the formulation of balanced
The points to be considered while planning meals are the size of the family,
age of the members, their activ
Root vegetables like the potato: white or yellow sweet potato, yam, colocasia,
carrot, tapioca, radish, beetroot and turnip contain good amounts of starch. They
also contain some vitamin C in the raw state. Yellow sweet potatoes and carrots
by white-washing, is also necessary once a year. Permanent bins are more difficult
to clean than movable containers and are therefore less desirable.
HANDLING THE PRODUCE
Produce intended for storage should be handled carefully at all times to avoid
THE MEALS OF THE DAY
Generally, there are three main meals in a day-the morning meal (breakfast), the
midday meal (lunch), and the evening or night meal (dinner). Some families include
'tea,' 'tiffin' or 'snacks' e
in preparing and serving them, increases appetite and palatability. Monotony in diet,
or serving of the same food in the same way time after time, leads to a dislike for the
food. Combining different flavours, colours, textures and forms of food, and addi
beans and sweets. Besides !he three regular meals a day, a-:.lc'i ;orrd (clod in the form
of snacks may be needed during the adolescent period. Table 39 gives the Jiet for
DIET FOR THE AOOLESCL:-.iT
Food-sru.D ~ "'5"/" r iilf/ iVOI
dipped into a solution of salt.
The flavours and pleasant odours of fruits are due to the presence of some
highly volatile substances which escape in the steam during cooking. Therefore,
there is a big difference in the flavour of raw and cooked fruits. S
as yellow carrots, green peas, oranges, white eggs and red beetroots make food appeal~
ing. Colourful mats, tables, plates and other utensils, and a gay eating place make
Milk and delicate flavours are preferred by children. Moisture and
The consumption of eggs is very low in our country and poultry farming rightly
deserves a very important place in 0ur planning. We should aim at providing at
least one egg a day for each person.
1vleat consists of varying amounts of fat, m
There are numerous ways of planning attractive and simple meals using
A suitable menu for a day is given below :
Banana or guava
Sooji porridge with milk (cooked sooji -!- cup and milk 1- cup)
Chapati or dosai (two small ones w
PREPARATION OF FOOD
COOKING OF MEALS
Before the body can use it, food must undergo some physical and chemical
changes through such processes as cooking, digestion, absorption and metabolism.
Cooking is the first step in making food available to the body.
and the situation handled carefully so that the child does not come to form a permanent
dislike for any p~'incipal item of food. Reluctance to eat new foods, a craving
for certain foods, poor appetite and dodging at meals require patient treatment. Refusa
M.P.F. costs about four Paise only.
The Indian :M.P.F. is available in three forms :
(a) Seasoned: with salt and spices for use in savoury preparations,
(b) Unseasoned: for use in sweet dishes, and
(c) Unseasoned with 20 per cent skimmed milk powder: for
Note: Includes half an ounce of butter and ghee.
*Four times a week.
Three times a week.
NUTRITION IN SPECIAL CONDITIONS
NUTRITION IN CHILDHOOD
The requisites of good nutrition are the same at a
exercised in getting the necessary nourishment into the child WitllOut upsetting his
digestion or peace of mind. 1:ooos which make a many-sided contribution to the diet
such as milk products, eggs, fruits, leafy vegetables, whole grains and unmilled rice
values. The process of preparing groundnut milk developed by the Instituie is as
Preparation of Groundllut Milk and CUrils*
1. Roasting of Groundnut and Remoral of the Red Skin: Good
is given a light roasting in a pan. The shell
about one month.
Nutritive Value: During malting, a part of the starch present in the grain is
converted into dextrins and maltose. Hence malt is more readily digested by infants
than cereal flours. There is also a slight increase in the content of the B
large quantities as possible and store them carefully.
(11) When a particular food such as egg is expensive, buy a cheaper substitute
like dry beans, instead of eggs.
(12) Before buying packaged foods, read labels carefully.
STORING FOOD TO
. Papaya can be easily grown and obtained throughout the year for supplying carotene.
Dry fruits are preserved fruits and are useful in increasing the taste and palat~
ability of foods.
Two or more ounces of fruits should be taken daily.
Condiments and Sp
secretion of milk. Overfeeding, however, will not stimulate additional production
The increase in the need for calcium, vitamin C, protein, riboflavin and vitamin A
is also much greater during lactation than during pregnancy. Therefore, the
baked, steamed or buttered and broiled.
Eggs are valuable not only for their nutritive value or for the flavour and colour
they impart to foods in which they are mixed, but because they bind the ingredients
together. The egg is used as a thickening a
For every shortage or wrong habit, the. following deductions III the score
should be made :
Tea or coffee for children
Soda or other soft drinks
Eating meals at irregular times
Eating snacks in-between meals
Eating too fast
Omitting a meal
(v) It prevents or decreases the severity of many gastro-intestinal disturbances,
specially in environments where sanitation and health measures
are not adequate.
During the first six months, the baby needs about 2i ounces of milk per pound
of body weight
with 110 to 125 grams of protein per day have proved to be of immense value
in many instances of under-nutritIOn, diseases of the kidney and such disturbance
of the gastro-intestinal tract as peptic ulcer or colitis.
The success of these diets depends upo
A cool, well-ventilated room on the ground floor or an underground room
(cellar) offers good conditions for the storage of vegetables and fruits. At
least one window is necessary in the room for cooling and ventilating, while two or
more are desirable. Th
proteins also contain important vitamins and minerals. The protein consumption
should therefore be increased during pregnancy by fifty per cent through the consumption
of milk or milk products, eggs, meat, fish or poultry. People who cannot
afford these c
money that we can spare for food, the types of food that v. e can include in
our diet according to our habits (e.g., vegetarian or non-vegetarian), cultural
background, pattern of living, religion, the part of the country from where we