Unstable Nuclei and Radioac1ve
Chapter 4 Sec,on 4
Since the # of protons in an atom determines
its iden,ty, and there are no changes to the
nucleus during a chemical reac,on, the
The Nature of Ma1er
At the end of the 19th century, the idea
prevailed that ma<er and energy were
Ma<er was thought to consist of par,cles, wheras
energy in the fo
Empirical & Molecular Formulas
Chapter 11 Sec,on 4
The empirical formula for a compound is the
formula with the smallest whole number mole
ra,o of the elements.
Molecular Formula: C6H12O6
Light and Quantized
The Nuclear Atom and
Rutherfords model lacked detail about how
electrons occupy the space surrounding the
To physicists Rutherfords model did not
address the question of why th
Electrochemistry is best dened as the study
of the interchange of chemical and electrical
It is primarily concerned with two processes
that involve redox reac?ons:
Kine.cs is the area of chemistry concerning
One of the main goals of kine.cs is to
understand the steps by which a reac.on
This series of steps
The Structure of the Atom
In approx. 430 B.C. the
Democritus was the
rst person to propose
the idea that maCer
was made up of $ny
par$cles called atoms.
Ma+er Proper/es and Changes
Ma+er that has a uniform and unchanging
composi/on is called a substance.
All elements and compounds are substances.
Example: Water (H2O), Iron (Fe)
Elements and Compounds
Elements are pure substances that cannot be
separated by physical or chemical means.
There are 91 naturally occurring elements on Earth.
The rest are synthe,c, o
Mixtures of Ma-er
Mixtures of Ma1er
A mixture is a combina0on of two or more pure
substances in which each pure substance retains
its individual chemical proper0es.
Mixtures can be classied
Chapters 8 & 9
A chemical bond is a force that holds two or
more atoms together.
The strength of a chemical bond can be
obtained by analyzing its bond energy, which
is the energy requir