COMPARISON OF ADJECTIVES
Adjectives are compared in Latin in the same manner as in English. There are
three degrees of comparison: 1) Positive; 2) Comparative; 3) Superlative:
THE PASSIVE VOICE
Present Passive Voice: Latin use of the Active and Passive Voices corresponds
generally to the English use. The passive forms for present, imperfect and future
are based on present stems for all conjugations, with these personal endings
OF S PEECH
Latin, as English, has eight parts of speech:
Noun - the name of a person, place, thing, or idea.
. Gender: In English gender has faded for most noun
General: When we take a verb and make an adjective out of it, we have constructed a
verbal adjective or participle:
The shouting woma n de parte d.
The men saw the destroyed tow n.
A participle, like any other adjective, must agree with the no
INDIRECT STATEMENT (ORATIO OBLIQUA)
General: The statement He scatters dragons teeth on the land is a direct
statement (rti recta): Dents dracnis in terr spargit.
But after words of saying, denying, announcing, telling, showing, knowing,
not knowing, beli
GERUND AND GERUNDIVE
I. The Gerund
The Gerund is a verbal noun , always active in force. The infintive of the verbs supplies
the nominative case:
Legere est difficile = To read is difficult (reading is difficult)
The other cases are formed by adding -nd-
THIRD DECLENSION NOUNS
1) Masculine and feminine third declension nouns are declined alike:
SECOND DECLENSION NOUNS
(-us, -er, -ir; -um)
Nouns of the Second Declension are regularly masculine or
neuter . Nouns ending in -us, -er, and -ir are masculine; those
ending in -um are neuter.
1) Nouns ending in -us (masculine) and -um
THIRD CONJUGATION VERBS
Third Conjugation Verbs have the infinitive ending in -ere. (Note the difference
from the -ere of the 2d conjugation).
1. Present tense has the characteristic vowel -i:
Conjugation of Verbs
The inflection of a verb is called a Conjugation. Most verb inflections in English have
disappeared, although we still distinguish between I go, he goes, etc. Latin, however,
retains full inflections for most verbs, the forms of which
S UMMARY OF CASE USES
1. Subject of a verb
Puer currunt. The boys are running.
2. Predicate Nominative or Subjective Complement
Caesar erat consul. Caesar was consul.
Puer appelltur Mrcus. The boy is called Marcus.
1. For direct addres
THE USE OF CASES
Cases in Latin have specific grammatical functions, which must be
learned in order to properly understand Latin sentences (which are not
dependent, as English sentences are, on word order). The following case
uses are fundamental:
The Supine is a verbal noun of the fourth declension, appearing only in the accusative
singular (-um) and ablative singular (-) and limited to two usages.
I. The Supine in -um:
A. The Supine in -um may be used after verbs of motion to express p