The two most common forms of carbon,
diamond and graphite, are typically
In diamond, the hardest naturally occurring
substance, each carbon atom is surrounded
by a tetrahedral arrangement of other carbon
The structure of grap
Can you write reactions?
Hydrochloric acid is added to a solution of
Solutions of cobalt (II) nitrate and sodium
hydroxide are mixed.
Solid calcium sulfite is heated in a vacuum.
Sodium and nitrate are spectator ions so the
net ionic equation is
Ba2+(aq) + SO4-(aq)
We use the equation: q
We first need to find the mass of solution
The total volume of solution is 2.0 L, so
Bond Polarity & Dipole
Moment of positive
A molecule that has a center
charge and a center of negative charge is
said to be dipolar, or to have a dipole
Leading to a Polar
leading to a
Chapters 8 & 9
A chemical bond is a force that holds two
or more atoms together.
The strength of a chemical bond can be
obtained by analyzing its bond energy,
which is the energy required to break the
A bond will form if the e
Orbital Filling Sequence
Ionization energy is the energy required
to remove an electron from a gaseous
atom or ion.
The first ionization energy is the energy
required to remove the highest energy
electron of an
= hc =
(6.626 x 10-34)(3 x 108)
1.633 x 10-18
= 1.216 x 10-7 m
Sample Calculation # 4
How much energy is required to remove
the electron from a hydrogen atom in its
Solution: Removing the electron from a
hydrogen atom in its ground state
We need to use the equation: E = h
So first, we must find the frequency of the
= c = 3.00 x 108 m/s = 6.66 x 1014 Hz
4.50 x 10-7 m
Now plug into the original equation.
E = (6.626 x 10-34 J/Hz) x (6.66 x 1014
The next i
Radiant energy that exhibits wavelike
behavior and travels through space at
the speed of light in a vacuum.
Wavelength () is the distance between
two consecutive pea
Acids and Bases
Acids produce hydrogen ion when
dissolved in water.
Bases produce hydroxide ion when
dissolved in water.
This concept is too limited because it only
applies to aqueous solutions and allows
for only one kind of
Calculating Ka from %
A 0.15 M solution of a weak acid is 3.0%
dissociated. Calculate Ka.
Calculating the pH of a Weak
Calculate the pH for a 15.0 M solution of
ammonia (Kb = 1.8 x 10-5).
Acids that can furnish more than
Acids and Bases are defined as follows:
An acid is a proton donor.
A base is a proton acceptor.
HCl donates a hydrogen (proton) to water making
it an acid.
Water gains a hydrogen
The Common Ion Effect
When you have a solution containing a
weak acid and its salt there will be a
The addition of F- from the salt will cause
the acid equilibrium to shift to the left du