Forming Chemical Bonds
A force that holds atoms together.
Form b/c of the interaction of valence electrons.
Noble gases dont form chemical bonds.
they are unreactive b/c their outermost energy level is full of valence electrons(C
Shape determines physical and chemical properties.
Shape is determined by how orbitals overlap in the sharing of electrons.
Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion model
Arrangement that minimizes the repulsion between shared
*will have a periodic table*
-Electron configuration (long way)
-Orbital diagrams (arrows)
-2 questions where they give you orbital diagrams and you need to find out which rule was
broken in the diagram
Molecular Mass Determination Using Boiling Point
Potassium Nitrate (KNO3)
Boiling point of water
Boiling point of solution
1. Calculate the molecular mass of the solute for eac
The heat was essential because a solvent such as water is able to attain more solute
at higher temperatures as opposed to at room temperature in which the extra solute
would not dissolve and merely fall to the bottom of the test tube.
Once the solution ha
Zinc dissolves fairly well, but requires elevated temperatures to dissolve quickly.
Heat carefully because excessive temperature will drive off the HCl and decrease the
For example, sodium reacts vigorously with water, and magnesium reacts
This lab provides a means to determine the formulas of various metal chlorides and other
salts if you know the atomic masses of the metals.
You can simply calculate the equivalent mass of the metals, or, if you know the formula
of the chloride, you can ca
The purpose and hypotheses were met, as shown through the experiment.
First of all, the mass of the anhydrous salt was indeed less than the mass of the hydrate,
as shown by the slopes of the graphs.
Secondly, with calculations, the number of moles of wate
First, the empty crucibles mass was determined using the balance.
Then, the mass of the crucible + hydrate was massed. The difference in the masses gave
the mass of the hydrate. Next, the apparatus for evaporating the water in the hydrate was
set up (ring
For the magnesium ribbon, simply cut it into pieces longer than required, clean with fine
sandpaper and cut to desired mass.
If the metal does not consist of small enough pieces, grind it into smaller bits.
The rate of the reaction with the acid
Formula of Chlorides
Many reactive metals will dissolve in hydrochloric acid (HCl). The reaction can be
written symbolically as follows.
M + HCl MCl + H2
The above formula assumes a monovalent metal ion. For bivalent metals, the reaction
would be as follo
Chromatography means "color writing."
It is a technique for separating materials, which, if they have different colors, form into a
series of colors.
In this lab, you'll use thin layer chromatography to separate the pigments
The lab involves obtaining the anhydrous salt from a hydrate and observing the hydrate's
properties in doing so.
The ratio of that mass to the atomic mass provides the empirical formula of the chloride
Mathematically, the lab involves using rati