Repetition of similar units in body structure
Earthworm repeats its body unit
In arthropods, segments may fuse to form larger functional units
Support of Body
Sponges have a simple skeleton
Roundworms are supported by fluid-filled center cavi
Photoperiodism: response to changes in length of day and night, formation of storage
organs, bud dormancy, flowering
Critical Night Lenth
Response to light and dark, change in turgor pressure is gradu
Pollen Grain Formation
Four pollen sacs, each has microspore mother cell, produces four haploid microspores
through meiosis, mitosis
Cell wall forms around each two-cell structure (pollen grain)
tube cell has larger tube nucleus, makes pollen tube, genera
Plant Responses - 33
Groups of Hormones
Hormones: there are chemical messengers, affect plants response to environment,
interact with tissue for physiological response
Growth regulators are enzymes and hormones that have the function that d
-into more cells that are smaller
Increases surface area to volume ratio for individual cells
Hollow blastocoel located in center
Blastopore begins infolding
Produces multilayered gastrula
Introduction to Animals - 34
The Nature of Animals
Lack cell walls
Most members include, Sexual reproduction, Movement, Multicellular Organization,
Animals are multicellular, Human adult contains 50
Elongation and growth, larger than normal height
Ripens fruit, released as gas, diffuses into other unripe fruit, applied in etheplon to
artificially ripen fruit, promotes abscission
Cell division in plants, lateral bud gr
Fundamental tissue types
Found in embryos of all animals but sponges, Give rise to every body feature, Body
Cavities, Fluid filled space, Two similar haves on either side of a plane, Exhibit
cephalization (has a head), Forms between digestive
Feeding and Digestion
Sponges must filter feed
Food that is drawn in is digested by collar cells
Nutrients are transported to rest of sponge by amebocytes
Sponges can reproduce asexually
They bud, or produce gemmules in harsh conditions
Endoskeleton provides internal support
Ribs and vertebrae repeat
Evolved for motion
Frogs legs postioned away from body
Deers legs positioned directly underneath for speed and longer stride
Humans have bipedalism
Body Coverings, Fish have int
1. Early wood is usually associated with spring and plenty of water, while late wood
is associated with summer and less water. However, if environmental conditions
were different, the structure of early wood and late wood could change too.
The first plate to check for successful transformation is plate 6 (LB/amp/X-gal+plasmid).
This is because it immediately shows that both of the genes on the plasmid were
Colonies have grown despite the presence of ampicillin, showing the expres
1. As the molarity of the sucrose solutions increased, so did the percent change in
2. However, even though the percent change in mass increased, it did not do so at a
3. If all the bags were placed in a 0.4 M sucrose solution, the di
Stems They provide support to leaves, provide storage, and transport
Roots They anchor the plant, absorb and transport water and mineral
nutrients, and store water and organic compounds, such as carb
1. Phloem functions in transport of the products of photosynthesis, food and water,
both up and down a plant.
2. Parenchyma cells function in storage of materials, photosynthesis, support
(herbaceous plants), and lateral transport. They have thin cell wal
Applying Your Knowledge
1. This is very important in fact because cells become bigger, so the epidermis must
too to protect the cells.
2. The endodermis is indeed essential in the root because roots mainly absorb water
and nutrients, making the endodermis
1. Lack of a cuticle in the roots can be an advantage since roots can then absorb more
water, which the cuticle prevents in stems and leaves.
2. The endodermis prevents water from reaching any farther and only allows some
material to pass through. This is
1. Growth upwards only occurs at the tip (apical meristem).
2. It is possible to determine the age of a tree by the amount of vascular
cambium created and the xylem and phloem present.
3. Plants always have growing tissue (apical meristem) while animal ti
Analysis of Results
Rates (ml H2O2/sec)
Time Intervals (seconds)
10-30 30-60 60-90 90-120 120-180
2. The rate is the highest at time interval 0-10 seconds.
This is because the enzymes effect is gre
Ampicillin resistance and color transformation are being selected for in this lab.
If the +plasmid bacteria are ampicillin resistant in the presence of ampicillin, then the
bacteria have taken up the plasmid since they show the expression for the ampR gen
Role of hormones
Explain how your body system works with other systems in the body.
Description and major functions of nervous system in humans
Description and major functions of the central nervous system and peripheral nervous
system. What makes up the
The LB+ plasmid and LB-plasmid both showed lawns.
The only difference between the two was that the + contained the plasmid with the gene for
The occurrence of lawns showed that bacteria grow normally in the absenc
Multiple alleles: trait or gene has 2 or more forms of alleles (blood types), but you
only possess 2 alleles
Polygenic traits: trait that is controlled by more than one gene (eye/hair color)
Carrier: heterozygous individuals who carries recessive allele,
Ions such as Na+ and K+ can only diffuse across the membrane through ion channels.
K+, which has been pumped into the cell, can only exit in small amounts through the few
K+ ion channels that are open.
Neurons can produce action potentials because they ha
Hydrogen bonds exist between complimentary nitrogen bases on the opposite strands
The two parts of the nucleotide that are the same for all nucleotides are the phosphate
group and deoxyribose sugar.
The nitrogen base is always attached to the deox
Allele - an alternate or variable form of a gene
Genotype the allele combinations an organism has for a given trait
Phenotype - the expression of a pair of alleles
Homozygous - having 2 of the same alleles for a given trait
Heterozygous - having
If it were administered orally, digestive enzymes such as pepsin would hydrolyze the
protein into inactive fragments.
Hormone 2, which is cholesterol-derived, can be administered orally because it
will be absorbed from the digestive track and into the blo
DNA stands for deoxyribonucleic acid.
DNA is found in all living organisms.
DNA is found in the cytoplasm of prokaryotic cells, and in the nucleus of eukaryotic
In eukaryotic cells, DNA is in two forms: chromatin and chromosome.
Chromatin and chrom
Major functions of digestive system
Diagram(s) that includes the major parts mouth/salivary glands/teeth, esophagus,
stomach, small intestine (include villi, microvilli), large intestine, liver/gall bladder,
pancreas, and large intestine/rectum/anus .
Major functions of circulatory system
Diagram(s) that includes the major parts - heart, arteries, arterioles, veins, venules,
capillaries - and describe the structure/function(s) of each.
Pulmonary vs. Systemic circulation
Distinguish between arteries and