Prokaryotes are the oldest, and structurally
simplest forms of life
Prokaryotes are ubiquitous
Less than 10% of species are known
Bacteria (also called eubacteria)
Archaea (formerly called archaebacteria)
Chapter 9, Solids and Fluids
C1. A container is filled with water and the pressure at the container bottom is P. If the container
is instead filled with oil having specific gravity 0.80, what new bottom pressure results?
Chapter 24, Wave Optics
C1. In a Youngs double-slit experiment, both the wavelength and the slit separation are
increased by 50%. What happens to the distance between two adjacent bright fringes?
a. It increases by 50%.
Chapter 11, Energy in Thermal Processes
C1. Pennies used to be made of copper, but now they are made of copper-coated zinc. If one were
to do a precise calorimetry experiment to determine the specific heat of the new pennies
Chapter 10, Thermal Physics
C1. Metal lids on glass jars can often be loosened by running them under hot water. Why is this?
a. The hot water is a lubricant.
b. The metal and glass expand due to the heating, and the glass be
HOW CELLS HARVEST ENERGY
LIFE IS DRIVEN BY ENERGY
A. Cells Derive Energy From Organic Molecules
B. Convert Energy into ATP
Cells harvest the energy in chemical bonds
USING CHEMICAL ENERGY TO DRIVE METABOLISM
A. All Living Organisms Requ
Molecular Structure: the VSEPR
Valence Shell electron-pair repulsion
Useful to predict geometry of a molecule
The structure around an atom is
determined by minimizing electron pair
repulsions (both b
Properties of Solutions
. . . the components of a mixture
are uniformly intermingled (the
mixture is homogeneous).
moles of solute
1. Molarity (M) =
liters of solution
Lab Manual Ex. 27.
Raven, pp. 603-615
There are 77,000 species
Science of fungi is called mycology.
How are they different from plants?
1- Absorptive Heterotrophs
Few are predatory Possess haustoria.
2- Filamentous bodies , filament
The principles of Mendel
Raven: All of Chapter 12,
excluding polygenic inheritance &
Lab manual : Experiment 17
They are chromosomes that are similar in
morphology and genetic constitution.
Humans have 2
Mitosis and Meiosis
Lab Manual: Chapter 14 & 15
Raven: Chapter 10, pp. 188-196.
Chapter 11, pp. 205-216.
Flemming, 1879, 1st to examine the cells of
Salamander larvae dividing.
Number of chromosomes vary among species.
10-50 chromosomes in eukary
Aerobic & Anaerobic Oxidation of Organic
(Enzymes mediated reaction of living cells)
- Anabolism Vs. Catabolism.
organic molecules (energy rich ) must be
broken down and their energy is tr
Pigment Separation & Starch Production
Lab Manual, Exp. 13
Enzymes mediated reaction of living cells
- Anabolism vs. Catabolism
Plants are able to capture suns energy and store it
in the chem
Biologically Important Molecules:
Lab Manual Exp. 6
Raven chapter 3
Test the four major classes of organic compounds:
1- Carbohydrates = Benedicts Test for reducing
sugars and I2KI test for starch.
2- Proteins = Buiret
Lab Manual: Exercise 3
1- Learn types of light microscopes
2- How to use a microscope
3- Standardize a microscope
4- Preparation of slides
Microbes < 1mm.
Objects 100 m or larger can be seen with
the naked eye.
1) Tissue culture medium is a medium contains the nutrition elements for tissue and cell living Tissue culture medium elements as: Macro elements Micro elements Vitamin Fe-EDTA Plant growth regulators Organic matter Others Agar pH=5.8 There are about 20 m
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