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Light and Matter
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The Nature of Light: Wave or Particle
The nature of light has been debated for
thousands of years.
In the 1600's, Newton argued that light was a
stream of particles.
Huygens argued it was a wave.
Both had good ar
I ntroduc tion
Some of the most powerful tools in physics are based on c ons ervation princ iples . The idea behind a
conservation principle is that there are some properties of systems that dont change, even though other things
about the system m
MOTION IN CIRCLES
What is speed? What is the equation?
Circular Motion: the rate at which an object turns is described by angular speed
o Ex: planets in orbit, a basketball spinning on a fingertip
o Every object with circular motion has an a
MOTION IN CIRCLES
Centripetal Force: any force that causes an object to move in a circle
o Any type of force can be a centripetal force if its action causes an object to move in a circle.
Ex: the friction between your cars ti
Newtons 1st Law of Motion Notes
Aristotle: 2400 years ago
o Objects must be pushed in order to move them, as written in his series of books, Physics
Galileo: 400 years ago, Physicist and Astronomer
o In the absence of all external forces, an objects vel
Newtons 2nd Law of Motion Notes
As a net force, F, is applied to an object of mass m, the object will accelerate, a.
Mainly the relationship between acceleration and force since mass generally stays consistent in a given
As a net force is appli
Mass vs. Weight Notes
Mass is the measure of inertia of an object.
o Inertia is the resistance of an object to accelerate or change its state of motion.
o The SI unit for mass is kilograms (kg)
Mass is not the same as weight
Mass is a property of an ob
In the equation , the symbol (Greek letter Sigma) means the sum of or total
o You have to add all forces acting on the object
o Force is a vector which means it has a magnitude (# value) and a direction (+ or -)
Free Body Diagrams: drawing mad
The friction force is the force exerted by a surface as an object moves across it or makes an effort to
move across it.
o Kinetic friction results when an object moves (slides) across a surface.
Fkf: Force of kinetic fric
Final Exam Honors Study Guide
A 3 kg stone is dropped from a height of 4 m. What is its momentum as it strikes the ground?
A rubber ball with a mass of 2 kg is dropped onto a steel plate. Th
Regents Physics Information Sheet
Optical Ray Diagram Rules
Directions: Use the rules elaborated below to help you determine how to draw the optical ray diagram for
mirrors and lenses to then find out what kind of image is produced.