EVOLUTION AND NATURAL
Change over time
to study rock layers called
Found extinct species and
noticed the deeper the fossil
the more unique
Believed the earth to be
The History of Life on Earth
5 billion years ago, swirling gases
and dust collected inward and
formed the sun.
The rest of the dust and particles
began to orbit around the sun and
hit into each other. This formed the
The earth is estimat
Other Traits and Pedigrees
Complex Characteristics and Sex
Characteristics that are due to more than one gene.
Eye color, hair color, skin color, height, etc.
Most characteristics where ther
Traits Controlled by
Means that there is more than 2 alleles that control a trait.
(3 or more alleles)
Blood types are an example of mul2ple alleles in humans
There are 4 types of
1822; Died 1884
Monk and a teacher
Work not recognized until
Studied heredity by
studying pea plants
What is heredity?
MENDELS PEA PLANTS
characteristics of pea
plants with two
Part 1: Chromosomes
shaped structures made of
DNA and proteins (coiled
Histones: proteins in
eukaryo;c cells that
shapes the chromosome
and ;ghtly packs the DNA
Less coiled form called
Photosynthesis & Respiration
Part 2: Cellular Respiration
How are photosynthesis and respiration linked?
Growth and development
do living things need energy?
The most us
Photosynthesis & Respiration
Part 1: Photosynthesis
It is the process that converts sunlight energy
into chemical energy (in the form of glucose
and other carbohydrates)
6CO2 + 6H2O +light
Passive and Active
Passive transport is any transport that
occurs without the use of energy.
The movement of molecules
from an area of higher
Acids and Bases
A solution is a mixture in which one or more
substances are uniformly distributed in another
substance. (Liquids, gases or solids)
The solvent of the solution is the substance in which
the solute is dissolved. (Dissolv
Matter and Mass
that a mass
and takes up space
The mass of an object
is how much matter
Mass is different than
weight. Your mass at
moment does not
change based on
location. Weight is due
Unit 4 Study Guide
Answer all of the questions on a separate sheet of paper.
1. Why do all living organisms require energy?
All organisms require energy to perform life processes such as reproduction,
You are a geneticist working with a newly discovered strain of dragons. You have seen
red dragons and green dragons. You are trying to determine which color is the dominant
color. Your lab group has been breeding the dragon
Mendel is well known for his contributions to genetics. However, the work that Mendel
performed only detailed how completely dominant traits would be passed on to offspring. More
research into genetic showed that there were
1. In superheroes, having the ability to fly is recessive. Non-flying is the dominant trait.
Cross a hybrid non-flying superhero with a flying superhero. What are the genotypic and
phenotypic ratios of their possible offspring?
Evolution Study Guide
Origins of Life and The Scientists Involved - Correctly identify the following scientists.
1. I did extensive research into the early physical structure of cells. _
2. I proposed a theory that explained how eukaryotes
Slide 1 / 98
Light and Matter
Slide 2 / 98
The Nature of Light: Wave or Particle
The nature of light has been debated for
thousands of years.
In the 1600's, Newton argued that light was a
stream of particles.
Huygens argued it was a wave.
Both had good ar
I ntroduc tion
Some of the most powerful tools in physics are based on c ons ervation princ iples . The idea behind a
conservation principle is that there are some properties of systems that dont change, even though other things
about the system m
MOTION IN CIRCLES
What is speed? What is the equation?
Circular Motion: the rate at which an object turns is described by angular speed
o Ex: planets in orbit, a basketball spinning on a fingertip
o Every object with circular motion has an a
MOTION IN CIRCLES
Centripetal Force: any force that causes an object to move in a circle
o Any type of force can be a centripetal force if its action causes an object to move in a circle.
Ex: the friction between your cars ti
Newtons 1st Law of Motion Notes
Aristotle: 2400 years ago
o Objects must be pushed in order to move them, as written in his series of books, Physics
Galileo: 400 years ago, Physicist and Astronomer
o In the absence of all external forces, an objects vel
Newtons 2nd Law of Motion Notes
As a net force, F, is applied to an object of mass m, the object will accelerate, a.
Mainly the relationship between acceleration and force since mass generally stays consistent in a given
As a net force is appli
Mass vs. Weight Notes
Mass is the measure of inertia of an object.
o Inertia is the resistance of an object to accelerate or change its state of motion.
o The SI unit for mass is kilograms (kg)
Mass is not the same as weight
Mass is a property of an ob
In the equation , the symbol (Greek letter Sigma) means the sum of or total
o You have to add all forces acting on the object
o Force is a vector which means it has a magnitude (# value) and a direction (+ or -)
Free Body Diagrams: drawing mad
The friction force is the force exerted by a surface as an object moves across it or makes an effort to
move across it.
o Kinetic friction results when an object moves (slides) across a surface.
Fkf: Force of kinetic fric
Final Exam Honors Study Guide
A 3 kg stone is dropped from a height of 4 m. What is its momentum as it strikes the ground?
A rubber ball with a mass of 2 kg is dropped onto a steel plate. Th
Regents Physics Information Sheet
Optical Ray Diagram Rules
Directions: Use the rules elaborated below to help you determine how to draw the optical ray diagram for
mirrors and lenses to then find out what kind of image is produced.