Basic Steps of the Scientific Method
Step 2: Formulate a hypothesis
Step 3: Devise a testable experiment
Step 4: Conduct a critical experiment
Step 1: Make observations
Step 5: Draw conclusions and make revisions
Step 1) The scient
There are two kinds of genetic drift:
o 1) Founder effect founding members of a new
population have different allele frequencies than
original. Side note: someone with six fingers on one
hand is said to be polydactyl. More common in Amish
The mechanisms of Evolution:
2) Genetic Drift
4) Natural selection
Mutation could be good or bad. Without mutations we
wouldnt be evolving.
- It is a natural biological process
-It can happen in protein but not all a
While at the Galapagos Island Charles Darwin made several
1) His work with the finches- he saw that they were the same
species but with different physical traits. In
particular, their breaks were different.
2) There wa
Fitness- measured on reproductive success compound to
population genotypes and phenotypes in populations and
environment (for color & sand)
Adaptation- process where organisms become better suited to
Placebo effect: poorly under
Independent Variable: Value can change
Dependent Variable: is affected by the independent variable
(what you measure)
Positive correlation: when one variable
increases, so does the other.
2 types of scientific evidence:
pseudoscience: in whi
o 1) Chromosomes condense and nuclear envelope falls
o 2) Chromosomes line up in the middle of the cell.
o 3) Each chromosome is pulled apart from its duplicate.
o 4) New nuclear membranes from around each complete set
3 types of solution
o 1) Isotonic solution: solute concentrations are
o 2) Hypotonic solution: solute concentrations are lower
o 3) Hypertonic solution: solute concentrations are
All cells have a plasma mem
Prokaryotes vs. Eukaryotes
No nucleus, single celled (bacteria, amoeba).
Study animal cell structure vs. plant cell
o Ancestral eukaryote engulfs ancestral prokary
Evolution: a genetic change in alleles in a population
over time. It takes many generations and individuals cannot
evolve. Only populations can evolve.
o Population levels change by only allowing the fittest
Charles Darwins Influ