Standard Operating Procedures
Department of Chemistry
University of California - Davis
Davis, CA 95616
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GENERAL CHEMISTRY LAB REPORTS
State the objective of experiment what is the scientific goal, not just statement of
the measurements that are to be made
Provide short discussion putting the subject matter in context
SCOPE OF PRACTICE FOR RESEARCH DUTIES AND RESPONSIBILITIES
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for the Quantitative Reasoning
Measure of the GRE revised
This Math Review will familiarize you with the mathematical skills and concepts that are
important to understand in order to solve problems and to reas
Focus of this chapter is Energy!
o You know something is a state function when it has a
Thermochemistry- The study of the relationships
between chemistry and energy.
o Work - the result of a force actin
Work formula: force times distance
w= F x D
The external force pressure is
(w=work, f= force, d=distance)
P = F/A or F= P
So w = P x A x D
o The distance through which the force acts is the
change in the height of the piston as it moves duri
Heat capacity is the quantity of heat required to
change its temperature by 1 degree C. The higher the
heat capacity of a system, the smaller the change in
temperature for a given amount of absorbed heat.
Heat capacity is an extensive property
The law of conservation of energy states that energy can
be neither created nor destroyed.
In hand warmer example the chemical energy of
the iron and oxygen becomes thermal energy that
increases the temperature of your hand and glove.
Another unit of energy is the calorie (cal) current
definition is 1 cal = 4.184 J (exact)
1 C = 1,000 c the uppercase C is a nutritional unit.
Thermodynamics the general study of energy and its interconversions.
1st law the
o If the reactants have a higher internal energy than
the products, Esys is negative and energy flows out of
the system into the surrounds.
If the reactants have a lower internal energy
than the products, Esys is positive and energy
o H = E + PV
Enthalpy is a state function. The change in
enthalpy is H = E + P V
E is a measure of all of the energy (heat &
work) exchanged with the surroundings, while
H is a measure of only the heat exchanged
under conditions of constant pre
Calorimetry we measure the thermal energy the reaction
(defined as the system) and the surroundings exchange by
observing the change in temperature of the surroundings.
o Bomb calorimeter a piece of equipment designed to
measure E for combustio
The standard enthalpy of formation is also
called the standard heat of formation
Assigning the value of zero to the standard
enthalpy of formation for an element in its
standard state is the equivalent of
assigning an altitude of zero at sea le
Focused on the three quantitative relationships between a
chemical equation and Hrxn.
o If a chemical equation is multiplied by some factor,
then Hrxn is also multiplied by the same factor.
o If a chemical equation is reversed, then Hrxn ch