Global change- any chemical, biological or physical property change of the planet.
Examples include cold temperatures causing ice ages.
Global climate change- changes in the climate of the Earth.
Global warming- one aspect of clim
The Tragedy of the Commons
In 1968, ecologist Garrett Hardin described the tragedy of the commons.
Tragedy of the commons- the tendency of a shared, limited resource to become depleted
because people act from self-interest for short-term gain.
Achieving Energy Sustainability
What is renewable energy?
Renewable energy can be rapidly regenerated, and some can never be depleted, no
matter how much of them we use.
How can we use less energy?
Energy conservation- finding ways to use les
Conservation of Biodiversity
The 6th Mass Extinction
Extinction- when there are no longer any of the species in the world.
We are currently losing approximately 50,000 species per year.
Why is biodiversity important?
Refuse collected by municipalities from households, small businesses, and
institutions such as schools, prisons, municipal buildings and hospitals.
31% - paper
33%- organic materials (yard waste, food scraps, wood)
18%- durable goods (applian
Sustainability, Economics, and Equity
Something is sustainable when it meets the needs of the present generation
without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own
A market occurs whenever p
Human Health and Environmental Risks
Three categories of human health risks
Infectious diseases- those caused by infectious agents, known as pathogens.
Examples: pneumonia and venereal disea
Air pollution- the introduction of chemicals, particulate matter, or
microorganisms into the atmosphere at concentrations high enough to harm
plants, animals, and materials such as buildings, or to alter ecosystems.
Major Air Pollutants
Water pollution- the contamination of streams, rivers, lakes, oceans, or
groundwater with substances produced through human activities and that
negatively affect organisms.
Point sources- distinct locations that pump waste into a waterwa
Nonrenewable energy resources- fossil fuels (coal, oil, natural gas) and nuclear
Commercial energy sources- those that are bought and sold, such as coal, oil and
Subsistence energy sources- those gathered by individuals for their own u
Undernutrition- not consuming enough calories to be healthy.
Malnourished- a persons diet lacks the correct balance of proteins,
carbohydrates, vitamins, and minerals even though they get enough calories.
Overnutrition- too many calories and improper food