Mr. J. Bullaro
Part 1,2 and 3
Buoyancy: the upward force that a fluid exerts on an object that is
less dense than itself. Buoyancy allows a boat to float on water.
Displacement: the volume of a
Module 4: Variables_Mr. J. Bullaro_
Part 1, 2 and 3
1. Pendulum: a mass hung from a fixed point, free to swing back and forth when
put in motion.
2. Oscillation: is the movement or swinging back and forth of the ma
Module 4: Variables
Mr. J Bullaro
Parts 1,2,3 and 4
Aeronautics: the science dealing with the operation of aircraft.
2. System: a set of objects that are related in some way and can be isolated
Vocabulary for Chemical Reactions Unit
Control The part of an experiment that stays the same.
The control is a basis for comparison.
Conclusion A judgment or decision made after conducting
Data Information, such as that gathered during an
Aquifers- small spaces found within permeable layers of rock and sediment where
water is found.
Unconfined aquifers- an aquifer that is simply porous rock covered by soil.
Confined aquifers- an aquifer surrounded by a layer of impermeable rock or clay.
Core- the innermost zone of the planet made of nickel and iron.
Mantle- above the core containing magma
Crust- the outermost layer of the planet.
Asthenosphere- the outer part of the mantle, composed of semi-molten rock.
Lithosphere- the brittle outermost
Scientists Disagree on Earths Carrying Capacity
Factors that Drive Human Population Growth
Demography- the study of human populations and population trends.
Changes in Population Size
Changes in Population
Nature exists at several levels of complexity
Factors that Regulate Population Abundance and Distribution
Population size- the total number of individuals within a defined area at a
Population density- the number of individuals per unit area
Earth is home to a tremendous diversity of species
Ecosystem diversity- the variety of ecosystems within a given region.
Species diversity- the variety of species in a given ecosystem.
Genetic diversity- the variety of genes within a given species.
Global Processes Determine Weather and Climate
1. Weather- the short term conditions of the atmosphere in a local area.
These include temperature, humidity, clouds, precipitation, wind speed
and atmospheric pressure.
2. Climate- The average weather that
Variations in Climate Determine the Dominant Plant Growth Forms of
1. Climate affects the distribution of species around the globe.
2. Organisms possess distinct growth forms due to adaptations to local
temperature and precipitin patte
Ecosystem Ecology Examines Interactions Between the Living and NonLiving World
Ecosystem- A particular location on Earth distinguished by its particular
mix of interacting biotic and abiotic components.
What are some of these components?
Earth is a single interconnected system
All environmental systems consist of matter
Matter- anything that occupies space and has mass.
Mass- a measure of the amount of matter an object contains.
Weight- the force that results from the action of gravity on
Why would we need to study the Earth?
Neuse River Fish Killer
A few days in1991
1 x 109 fish died
Researchers developed skin sores, nausea, vomiting, memory
impairment and confusion
Toxin emitted by Pfiesteria killed the fish
Sustainability, Economics, and Equity
Something is sustainable when it meets the needs of the present generation
without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own
A market occurs whenever p
Global change- any chemical, biological or physical property change of the planet.
Examples include cold temperatures causing ice ages.
Global climate change- changes in the climate of the Earth.
Global warming- one aspect of clim
Conservation of Biodiversity
The 6th Mass Extinction
Extinction- when there are no longer any of the species in the world.
We are currently losing approximately 50,000 species per year.
Why is biodiversity important?
Human Health and Environmental Risks
Three categories of human health risks
Infectious diseases- those caused by infectious agents, known as pathogens.
Examples: pneumonia and venereal disea
Refuse collected by municipalities from households, small businesses, and
institutions such as schools, prisons, municipal buildings and hospitals.
31% - paper
33%- organic materials (yard waste, food scraps, wood)
18%- durable goods (applian
Air pollution- the introduction of chemicals, particulate matter, or
microorganisms into the atmosphere at concentrations high enough to harm
plants, animals, and materials such as buildings, or to alter ecosystems.
Major Air Pollutants
Water pollution- the contamination of streams, rivers, lakes, oceans, or
groundwater with substances produced through human activities and that
negatively affect organisms.
Point sources- distinct locations that pump waste into a waterwa
Achieving Energy Sustainability
What is renewable energy?
Renewable energy can be rapidly regenerated, and some can never be depleted, no
matter how much of them we use.
How can we use less energy?
Energy conservation- finding ways to use les
Nonrenewable energy resources- fossil fuels (coal, oil, natural gas) and nuclear
Commercial energy sources- those that are bought and sold, such as coal, oil and
Subsistence energy sources- those gathered by individuals for their own u
Undernutrition- not consuming enough calories to be healthy.
Malnourished- a persons diet lacks the correct balance of proteins,
carbohydrates, vitamins, and minerals even though they get enough calories.
Overnutrition- too many calories and improper food
The Tragedy of the Commons
In 1968, ecologist Garrett Hardin described the tragedy of the commons.
Tragedy of the commons- the tendency of a shared, limited resource to become depleted
because people act from self-interest for short-term gain.
- Clean fresh water is essential for life
- People can survive without food for more than a month but only a few days
- People live longer today due to clean water
- 47% Agricultural
- 44% Industrial
- 9% Resident
Fresh Water Pollution
- Water pollution is the introduction of chemical, physical or biological agents into
water that makes the water quality worse
- Water pollution in the US and developed nations is getting better
- Water pollution in develop
- No one really knows how much ocean pollution there is or how much ocean
pollution the ocean can absorb
- Very little research is being done on ocean pollution
How Pollution Gets into the Ocean:
- At least 86% of ocean pollution
What Causes Air Pollution?
Laws for Preventing and Reducing Air Pollution
- The Clean Air Act of 1970, 1977, and 1990 provide federal air pollution
regulations and require the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to establish
National Ambient A
6.1 Notes Continued
What Causes Air Pollution?
- Colorless gas
- Irritating odor
- Produces acid rain
- Breathing difficulties
- Lichen and moss are inhalers
- Burning high sulfur coal or oil
- Smelting of metal