Difference between Mitochondria and Chloroplast
o H2O oxidized to O2
Starts out with water, and is oxidized into O2.
o Energy required (light)
No light energy, plants die.
These needs energy.
o Makes sugar from CO2
Need energies to form
Eukaryotic cells have a nucleus.
It has defining boundaries
o Nuclear envelope.
It is a double membrane with nuclear pores.
So since it is hard to get things through one membrane, two makes it even
Griffith asked if there was some kind of transformation that can be put into R cells, and
transform R cells genetically into killers.
All he knew was that there was some sort of transformation factor, but didn't know what
it might be.
What Avery saw:
General Features of Cytoskeletal Components.
o In Eukaryotic cells, there exist a cytoskeleton, made out of filaments.
They are assembled from a pool of protein subunits.
Proteins are polymers of amino acids, these filaments are polymers of
Process of Gel Electrophoresis
o Why use RBC?
Because the only protein RBC has are those found in the membrane, RBC
only has the plasma membrane.
If we use liver or any other type of cells, we will end up with lot's of
protein that has nothing to do wit
13 protofilaments, and singlets.
These serve as rails for movement of stuff like a train moving
This movements requires motors.
Two different kinds of motor that can move cargo
along cytoplasmic MTs
Four main groups of organic macromolecules
o Nucleic Acids (RNA and RNA)
o Carbohydrates (sugars)
Polymers are repeating units
o Proteins are polymers of amino acids.
Amino acids put together and are polymerized into pro
Gorter and Grendel Experiment (1925)
o They proposed that membranes are lipid bilayers.
They added on to the idea that membranes are lipids, which was proposed
They tested their hypothesis by:
They used red blood cells (RBC) because
Main steps of the light reactions:
o Purpose of the light reaction is to make NADPH and ATP for the Dark Reaction.
Light energy is absorbed, by the photopigment, and does two things:
o At PSII, it splits water into H+, O2 and e- in the lumen.
Circle of Life
Starts out with photosynthetic cell that have chloroplast in them.
o In plants, there are specialize organelle, that generate O2 and Carbohydrate.
We, human, take O2 and Carbohydrate and turn it into water and CO2 to
MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the
1) In a single molecule of water, the two hydrogen atoms are bonded to a single oxygen atom by
A) nonpolar cov