Types of Bonds and Interactions:
o Sharing of electrons between two atoms
o Ionic or electrostatic bonds (full charges).
Ionic bonds refers to a full positive/negative charge. (+/-)
o Hydrogen bonds (partial charges)
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Homework - Readings
Our first lab will revolve around Tragedy of the Commons by Garret Hardin. Write a summary
of his essay, explaining how it pertains to human society and being able to sustain our
population as well as conserv
o Sugars/Saccharides . Usually polar, but not charged
Many are polar enough to be water soluble and not be fully charged
Some can be charged but many many are uncharged.
Two Main types:
o They are more hydrophobic than hydrophilic.
o Triglycerides have 3 fatty acid side chains.
Phospholipids have 2 fatty acid side chinas.
o One of the fatty acid side chain is replaced with a head-group.
Structure that changed the functio
Oxidized Compound (wants electrons)
o Reducing agent needed, it donates electrons; Oxidized compound will accept
electrons and protons.
Once it accepts the electron, it becomes a reduced compound. (Gets the
o A compound in its o
Three possibilities for DNA replication in bacteria.
Set up three rational possibility for DNA replication.
Experiment are done to test out the experiments.
o The data will help determine which hypothesis makes sense.
o When you have do
Division of a single cell.
Two main considerations:
Nuclear Division: Mitosis.
When cell divides, first thing it has to do is divide the nuclear contain.
Take the DNA split it in half, and then go into cell division.
Use of Centrifugation to Separate organelles, vesicles and other things.
Centrifugation can be used to separate organelles, and other things.
Spinning at different speeds
o Separation based primarily on size and weight.
Marching through the EM system, we went through the RER, went through the golgi, and after
coming out of the golgi, you can either go to the plasma membrane or you can go to lysosome.
Lysosomes: Acidic organelles for degradation and recycling.
There are lots of filaments in nuclear matrix and cytoskeleton
But there are probably some kind of difference.
o So to study the difference, you would just get a isolated nuclear matrix fraction.
How to get nuclear matrix:
Sorting Proteins into Transition Vesicles:
How can you sort things to go into the right vesicle and know what is in the vesicle.
Take a transmembrane protein that have receptors on both sides.
Receptor on the lumen and the cytoplasm side.
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