CELL STRUCTURE AND
Cell Structure and Function
The basic units of life are cells
The cell theory:
all living things are composed of cells
All cells come from pre-existing cells (must be able to
Prokaryotic vs Eukaryotic Cells
Tissues: Specialized cells of the same type performing a common
4 major types of tissue:
P R O T E I N S , L I P I D S , A N D C A R B O H Y D R AT E S
ORGANIC MOLECULES OF CELLS
All living things consist of basic units of matter
Molecules form when atoms bond with one another
Organic molecules co
Also known as barbs, reds, red birds, phennies, tooies, yellows, yellow
jackets, candy, sleeping pills, tranks, A-minus, zombie pills, downers
come in multicolored tablets and capsules or in a liqui
The plant kingdom consists of thousands of species.
Plants have a cell wall of cellulose.
Plants convert light energy or sunlight to chemical energy.
the primitive and simplest plant
This exam is a take home open book, open resource Exam and is being handed
out in advance of the test date. On the test date we will meet in an online
session for questions and clarification. The exams will be du
1. Degenerate Code:
o The Codon code for amino acids where more than 1 codon codes for the same
2. Reading frame and frameshift:
o The work of Crick and Brenner tells us conclusively that the code is read in threes
and that there is no spaces
1. Morphological Species Concept:
o Different species look different, behave differently and use different resources.
No one is going to mistake a squirrel for a barn swallow.
No one is going to mistake a barn swallow for a tree swallow.
Even though th
o The only one adaptive evolutionary force.
o The force that changed the Finches beak during the El Nino, and La Nina years.
o The evolutionary force that changes Allele frequency in an adaptive way.
o Adaption is the entire point, it i
1. Bottleneck effect:
o Another way Genetic Drift can work.
o A population with mix Phenotype.
A disaster that cuts the population dramatically.
Just like a founder event, the survivors are a random collection of alleles.
They probably don't resemble th
1. What happens when male and female parental investment is equal or males invest more?
o There are males who stick around.
o Ex. Emperor Penguins.
Pair for multiple mating season.
Lay their egg in Antartica.
Females lay the egg and carefully roll the
1. Good Genes hypothesis:
o Species with parental care, females are looking for good fathers.
Baboon protecting its offspring.
o Females are looking for the oldest, largest and healthiest Male they can find.
These individuals probably have good genes.
1. Does gene flow increase or decrease genetic variation?
o It increases genetic variation in that genes that don't occur in a population can be
transferred into it from another population.
3. Non-random mating:
o In general, we as
o Ex. Species of mouse that come in two coat color.
Originally there is an equal number of big and white mice, but some
environmental change that suddenly makes it advantageous to have a
black coat instead of white.
Black Mice now have three
1. Disruptive Selection:
o Less commonly observed but potentially most important for speciation.
o Selection on both end of the trait.
Selection against the average trait value.
We see it when there is an environmental shift in a population such
o When homologous pair fails to separate.
o Result is that gamete will be missing a chromosome or with an extra
The chromosomes will either all go to one side and there will be non on
Daughter cell will have an
By Elaina Lin A5
What is asthma?
and narrows the
periods of wheezing
Affects people of all
ages often starts in
carry air into &
A. Inorganic molecules constitute nonliving matter, but also play important roles in living things.
B. Organic molecules are the molecules of life. They always contain carbon and hydrogen. A carbon atom
has four electrons in the outer sh
All matter is composed of elements, each having one type of atom.
Atoms react with one another, forming molecules, and compounds.
The atoms of an element can differ from those of another element in numbers of protons,
neutrons, and ele
Carbohydrates function for quick and short-term energy storage in all organisms, including humans.
Carbohydrates play a structural role in woody plants, bacteria, and animals such as insects.
Carbohydrates on cell surfaces play role in cell
Matter- anything that takes up space and has weight can exist as solid, liquid, or gas
A. ELEMENTS AND ATOMS
a. Element- one of the basic building blocks of matter
i. Only 92 naturally occurring elements
ii. Carbon, hydroge
Acidic and Basic Solutions and pH
When water dissociates (break up), it releases an equal number of hydrogen ions (H +) and hydroxide
Only a few water molecules at a time are dissociates. Actual number of ions in 10 -7 moles/liter. A mole is