What is life?
o Life is:
o What is not alive?
What might be the outgroup to life?
Virus/other virus like diseases.
Not everyone agrees, but it is one answer.
o All virus have similar structure:
Why aren't viruses alive?
o They aren't alive because they are organized but cannot replicate itself.
TSE and some examples:
o Transmissible spongiform encephalopathy, TSE.
o Fatal brain diseases:
Instances where the brain of individuals develop many sm
Derived traits vs. ancestral traits:
o Homologous that are different from ancestral traits are derived traits.
They are traits that are derived from an ancestral traits.
o Ancestor to the mammals developed the ability to lactate, the ability to provide
How is continental drift related to allopatric speciation and species distributions?
o It is the most powerful force in that it leads to ocean dividing up population.
How do the different microevolutionary forces affect the chances of speciation?
Why is a phylogeny different than a "great chain"?
o Phylogeny are not vertical chain of complexity or importance.
o The tips of the phylogeny are all alive and are extant therefore are evolved.
Everything currently evolved have adapted to life.
1. Why is "prokaryotes" in quotes?
o Bacteria and Archaea are the oldest, simplest life forms.
They were abundant on the Earth for over 1billion years before there was
These early organisms were the ones who shaped the Earth's early
o When two different species produce a zygote, the zygote will typically not
develop or will not be born.
o Hybrid is not able to live.
o Some hybrids do survive.
In this case, they are usually infertile.
How is the traditional (5 or 6 kingdom) view of the tree of life biased?
o The tree turns out to be misleading.
o The protist is paraphyletic.
o Grouped in such a way that each of the group have equal weight.
Indicating that each of these group have an
o Simple idea that one population can before two species.
o Implies that all organisms are related to one another.
o These two species are descent from a common ancestor.
The shared ancestor of the two more mode
o Population that are physically or geologically isolated.
o Greek: "Allo" other.
Patr" Father Land"
Species that are not separated are sympatric.
o Individuals of allopatric are reproductively isolated due to geographic isolation