a. Activation energy and E are independent of each other. Activation energy depends on
the path reactants to take to convert to products. The overall energy change E only
depends on the initial and final energ
PROPERTIES OF SOLUTIONS
1 mol C3 H 7 OH
585 g C3 H 7 OH
60.09 g C3 H 7 OH
0.100 mol 134 .00 g
0.040 mol HCl
= 9.74 M
= 3.35 g Na2C2O4
= 0.040 mol HCl; 0.040 mol HCl
0.25 mol HCl
DNA to RNA to Protein
process of reading the code in genes to
make a protein.
Occurs in two steps
Uses the molecule RNA in process
Has the sugar ribose
Has Nitrogenous Base Uracil instead of Thymine
What is a population ?
A population consists of all the
individuals of a species that live together
at the same time in the same place.
Three key features of populations:
1. Population size: the numbers of individuals
in a population.
2. Population De
Energy and Living Things
! The Sun is the main source of energy for
the majority of Earths organisms.
Autotrophs are organisms that can make their
own food by absorbing sunlight to make organic
! This process of making organic compounds from t
division of the cells
nOccurs in 4 phases
In Animal Cells
Spindle fibers form
Microtubules that form
when the centrioles
move to opposite ends
of the cell
Austrian Monk born in 1822.
Bred different varieties of garden peas.
First to develop rules that accurately
predicted patterns of heredity.
Heredity: the passing of traits from parents to
Has many traits that are easy to
How are reproductive (haploid)
process of cell division that
produces reproductive (haploid) cells is
involves two divisions of the
nucleus thus it is sectioned as meiosis I
and meiosis II.
l Each division goe
The things we do can affect the
ecosystems around us!
high sulfur content coal is
burned in factories it releases sulfur
high into the atmosphere through
smokestacks. This sulfur then mixes
with the water vapor and turns into
sulfuric acid. Rain or
In the beginning there was nothing.
4.5 billion years ago formed
This is figured out by radiometric dating. This is
done by reading the half-life of a radioisotope.
Molten rock cooled to make land
Water vapor condensed to make the oceans
This is whe
Evolution- Change over time in an
Species- a group of like organisms that
can mate and produce fertile offspring.
1. Theory of Use and Disuse:
If you dont use it a lot, you lose it.
If you use it a lot, it will become an acquired
What are ecosystems?
An ecosystem is a place where several
populations of organisms (called a
community) interact with each other and
their surrounding environment or habitat.
A habitat consist of two major factors:
Abiotic factors- all the physical
1928 Frederic Griffith while working on making a vaccine for
pneumonia . He discovered that genetic material could be
transferred from a heat killed bacteria to a living bacteria. This
process was later called transformation.
1944 Oswald Avery discovered
If it is found, it must be named!
Taxonomy is the science of naming and classifying
Aristotle grouped plants and animals with common
structures. These groups were called genus.
In the 1750s Carolous Linnaeus started using
The body must replace cells that
are lost through the process of cell
Bacteria and other single celled
organisms reproduce by a type of
cell division called binary fission.
The cells DNA holds all of the
The Cell Theory
Back in the mid 1800s several
scientist made some profound
observations pertaining to cells.
These observations form the cell
theory, Which has three parts:
1. All living things are made of one or
2. Cells are the basic
How does matter move in
and out of a cell?
The first method of moving substances in and
out of a cell requires no energy and is called
Passive transport is a natural process that tries to
bring things to equilibrium, where everything
Cell Cycle Notes
cell cycle is repeating sequence of
cellular growth and division during the life
of an organism.
A cell spends 90% of its life in the first three
phases of the life cycle collectively called
The cell is only in the las
A TOUR OF THE WORLD
Precipitation 20-60 cm
Temperatures - -30oC in winter 10oC in
20% of the earths surface
Permafrost, permanently frozen layer of
Plants - Mostly mosses, grasses, lichen
and dwarf shrubs
How do organisms interact within a
When organisms live within close range of
each other, their relationship is called
u Organisms can have several different
relationships with each other. They are as
u Parasitism is when one