Memory Lecture 2
Topic slide Eric Kandel and Elizabeth Warrington
a. Eric Kandel won the Nobel Prize in 2000 for his work on the cellular basis
of memory and learning. Warrington is a British neuropsychologist who did
pioneering work on category-specif
a. Korsakoff syndrome
a.i. Petechial hemorrhages in the mammillary bodies, which are part of
the main output of the hippocampus.
Due to thiamine deficiencies associated with chronic
Memory profile similar to Wearings anterograde
Memory Lecture 1
Topic slide Henry Moliason (HM) and Brenda Milner
a. HM is a patient who had a bilateral hippocampal removal at age 27 after
suffering from seizures due to a bicycle accident at age 5. He had a
profound anterograde amnesia, two-year re
Neurons in the monkeys dlPFC fired during the delay period when the
target location was not visible, but was held in working memory. Different cells
encoded different spatial locations i.e., cells had memory fields.
Cell in the monkeys int
Patients with inferior frontal cortex lesions had difficulty performing the
high filtering task. This corroborates the imaging results in healthy individuals.
a.ii. Dorsolateral PFC (dlPFC), Rule Following, Capture, and
Cellular mechanisms for memory long term potential (LTP)
a. Bliss and Lomo 1973 study showed that an intense stimulus train (a
tetanus) could result in long-lasting increased excitability in neurons in
the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus.
Non-declarative (implicit) memory
a. Procedural skill learning
a.i. Dissociation of mirror drawing and episodic memory in H.M.
a.ii. Double dissociation of Skill learning and Declarative Memory
Mirror reading and verbal recognition
Different forms of memory operating on different time scales
a. Short-term memory (a concept that has morphed into working memory
WM includes manipulation of the contents of STM)
b. Long-term memory
b.i. Declarative or explicit memory
a. Consolidation of memories
a.i. The role of the hippocampus in memory was discussed why new
memories unable to be formed, but old memories persist in many
a.ii. One theory is that the hippocampus is important to bind together
Frontal lobes and memory
a. Recency memory
a.i. Patients with frontal lobe lesions do poorly in remembering which
stimulus was more recently seen than a competing stimulus. That
is, they have poor memory for when a stimulus was presented.
b. Source mem