. '-.; [GalaXIe-s : 'l.
. A galaxy' Is- an enormous grbup pf stars, star clusters, Interstellar gas and ~ - ' '
' I dust, and dark matter which is I'all graVItatIonally b0und together. - ' . I ,_
4' , There are over 170 billion galaXIes In the observable
_ Quasars are tIhingS' In our Universe that bur distant tIhey'I are the furthest
I things from our universe that can be seen:- ' " '_ . I .
. - Quasars are extremely brIght masses of energy and light-I gar? ,. "
Quasars are the brightest thing In
Universe of Surprises
Astronomers now believe that
the universe is made up of
more mass and energy. _ v . +93? 4".
.-. i 3: - "vf
Planets , stars, hugns; andtgy
the matter between; he stars *f
only make up 4%. 5 "
23% of the universe is made
up of anoth
Big Bang Theory
The mosfhpopular theory of
our universes origin.
In other words, it is a
explanation of how t ej'j-_.ff
universe started. _
It mainly comes fgom
mathematics and models.
Over billions of fears,
matter was formed intOgbig
Relation Between Redshift and Distance
He inferred that galaxies forDistantGalaxies
were Close in size. Cluster Dntanwin Redshift;
Galaxy In: gm yea H+Kiine1
This is to show thatuthgyg. u 73.000000 L
are smaller, but ffEaWay Lil vw
1.How many constellations are there?
2.Half of stars are part of what?
3.Which Cluster contains a few hundred stars?
4.Approximately, how many galaxies are there?
5.How many light years are Quasars?
6.How old is the oldest star in the world?
Is There Extrasensory Perception?
Extrasensory perception (ESP) - the controversial claim that perception can occur apart from sensory
input. Said to include telepathy, clairvoyance, and precognition.
Parapsychologists - those who study paranormal (litera
Physical energy from the environment , encode it as neural signals - sensation
Select, organize, interpret our sensations - perception
Raw sights and sounds, tastes and smells -perceive
Sensations - perceptions
Our conscious attention
Chapter 5 : Sensation
audition: sense of hearing
Best hearing occurs when frequencies corresponding to range of human voice
The Stimulus Input: Sound Waves
The strength, or amplitude, of sound waves determines their loudness
-Sensory transduction is the process by which our sensory systems covert stimulus energy into
-Eyes transduce energy - neural message that brain processes to see
Stimulus input: Light energy
Visible light - thin slice of whole spec
Frontal lobes and memory
a. Recency memory
a.i. Patients with frontal lobe lesions do poorly in remembering which
stimulus was more recently seen than a competing stimulus. That
is, they have poor memory for when a stimulus was presented.
b. Source mem
a. Korsakoff syndrome
a.i. Petechial hemorrhages in the mammillary bodies, which are part of
the main output of the hippocampus.
Due to thiamine deficiencies associated with chronic
Memory profile similar to Wearings anterograde
Memory Lecture 1
Topic slide Henry Moliason (HM) and Brenda Milner
a. HM is a patient who had a bilateral hippocampal removal at age 27 after
suffering from seizures due to a bicycle accident at age 5. He had a
profound anterograde amnesia, two-year re
Neurons in the monkeys dlPFC fired during the delay period when the
target location was not visible, but was held in working memory. Different cells
encoded different spatial locations i.e., cells had memory fields.
Cell in the monkeys int
Patients with inferior frontal cortex lesions had difficulty performing the
high filtering task. This corroborates the imaging results in healthy individuals.
a.ii. Dorsolateral PFC (dlPFC), Rule Following, Capture, and
Cellular mechanisms for memory long term potential (LTP)
a. Bliss and Lomo 1973 study showed that an intense stimulus train (a
tetanus) could result in long-lasting increased excitability in neurons in
the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus.
Non-declarative (implicit) memory
a. Procedural skill learning
a.i. Dissociation of mirror drawing and episodic memory in H.M.
a.ii. Double dissociation of Skill learning and Declarative Memory
Mirror reading and verbal recognition
Different forms of memory operating on different time scales
a. Short-term memory (a concept that has morphed into working memory
WM includes manipulation of the contents of STM)
b. Long-term memory
b.i. Declarative or explicit memory
a. Consolidation of memories
a.i. The role of the hippocampus in memory was discussed why new
memories unable to be formed, but old memories persist in many
a.ii. One theory is that the hippocampus is important to bind together
Memory Lecture 2
Topic slide Eric Kandel and Elizabeth Warrington
a. Eric Kandel won the Nobel Prize in 2000 for his work on the cellular basis
of memory and learning. Warrington is a British neuropsychologist who did
pioneering work on category-specif
a.i. Helmholtz showed that individuals could accurately report letters in
a large array of letters when attention was covertly drawn to a
location with a spark.
a.ii. Cherry, Broadbent, Triesman, and many others used dichotic
listening and shad
a.i.1. Studies of inter-modal attention have used MMN in a visual-motor tracking
tasks that can be made difficult or easy. While performing the task, the subject
hears a train of irrelevant auditory stimuli, with an occasional deviant
(different tone pitc
Masking and Attentional Blink (these topics will not appear on the
a. These studies show that masked stimuli (i.e., stimuli that are not
consciously perceived) evoke activity in category-specific brain
Attentional control networks
Neuroscience attentional studies using event-related potentials (ERPs)
a. Most initial neuroscience studies of attention focused on current cognitive
models i.e., was there an attentional filter and did it operate early or
a.i. Many of these init
a.i.1. The visual ERPs show a similar enhancement (P1) to the target appearing
in the attended compared to unattended location.
a.i.2. However, this effect only occurs for short intervals between the cue and
target. With longer intervals, the effect rever
a.i. Show simultaneous extinction
This is a roughly synonymous for simultanaganosia
itself e.g., a patient will report a single object in the good or
ipsilesional hemifield (right) and in the bad or contralesional
(left) hemifield. However, when bo
Anatomy of frontal lobe
a. The frontal lobes constitute about 41% of the cerebral cortex.
b. Showed several slides illustrating the extent of the frontal lobes on the
dorsal and ventral surfaces, and on the medial surface.
c. Major gyri of the frontal