Part I: Transcription and Translation
The synthesis of proteins occurs in two steps: 1) the transcription of the genetic information
from DNA into RNA (mRNA) and 2) the translation of the mRNA into a polypeptide chain.
Media I just made and will use in lab: The best way to sterilize media in a lab is through the use
of an autoclave. An autoclave ensures that everything, including endospores and thermophiles, is
killed in the media.
Glass Beaker: The best way to steriliz
5. Microorganisms produce compounds, which many antimicrobial drugs are derived from, for
their own defenses. Microorganisms are in constant competition for space, nutrients, and in the
case of humans, with normal flora in order to survive. Therefore, the
As part of plan-A, the body has barriers of entry which stop pathogens from ever
invading the body and causing infection. The main barrier in the respiratory system and
the throat is a layer of mucus and the cilia lining. The mucus layer is responsible
Antibodies would most likely be produced in Scenario A: Macrophages are exposed to
antigen and are then mixed with B and T cells. This scenario would probably produce antibodies
because the macrophages can act as antigen-presenting cells. When this mac
Case: The Revenge of the Blue Devils
Aerosol transmission is when an infection spreads from one person to another
through the air. The infection is in the air because of the person releasing a small amount
of saliva from their mouth, for example, durin
Tuberculosis, also known as TB, is an infectious disease that is caused by the bacteria
Mycobacterium Tuberculosis. Even though most people know of the bacteria infecting the
lungs, tuberculosis can also infect the kidney, spine, and brain. The disease is
1. To me, metabolism is all of the energy processes in your body. Also, metabolism is the
reason I am always hungry and eat 6 or more small meals a day. I have a fast metabolism
and therefore use energy quickly, and need to replenish my body numerous time
1. Hydrogen peroxide is a reactive oxygen compound that is an oxidizing agent. It reduces
the risk of infection by serving as an antiseptic because anaerobes produce little catalase.
2. Hydrogen peroxide is useful for treating puncture wounds because thes
Aerobic cellular respiration and fermentation have a few differences. Firstly, as the name
implies, aerobic cellular respiration is an aerobic process, requiring oxygen. Fermentation is an
anaerobic process, meaning there is no oxygen gas involved. Aerobi
The fish flesh on Anyas dinner contained trimethylamine oxide. Anaerobic bacteria,
which do not use oxygen as their final electron acceptor, on the flesh use trimethylamine
oxide as the final electron acceptor. Although it is odorless, once the trimeth
1. If a DNA molecule consisted of 28% guanine, then there would be 28% cytosine, 22%
adenine, and 22% thymine. This is because the sum of all of these would be 100%.
Guanine and cytosine are the same percentages because they are complementary, and so
1. A mutation is a change in the genetic material because of a mistake or damage in the base
sequences of the DNA strands.
2. A missense mutation because the amino acid sequence of the protein would be altered in
order to allow the bacterial cell wall to
Kochs postulates involve isolating organisms from an infected animal that are believed
to be the cause of the infection and independently grow them in culture. Then the different
organisms are injected into other animals that could contract a disease. Aft
1. Rabies is a viral infection. The rabies infection is caused by an enveloped virus. The
envelope that encases the virus is made of a phospholipid bilayer. In this bilayer there are
glycoproteins. The rabies virus can only infect certain types of cells,
1. A cell is the microscopic, basic unit of life, which is surrounded by a membrane
encompassing the genetic material, DNA.
2. Looking at a cell under a microscope, there are a few differences that might allow
someone to determine if it was a prokaryotic
C. has flagella. This is the correct answer because positive and negative taxis are only
possible with motile bacteria. Motile bacteria are bacteria that can move independently.
Independent movement is only possible with the extracellular structure fla
Question 4, Pg 14
a) The new antiviral drug prevents colds.
b) The volunteers taking the new antiviral drug are the experimental group. The volunteers
taking the placebos are the control group.
c) The experimental variable is the antivirus in the antivira