Lazarus transactional model
The theory that the experience of stress depends as much on the individuals
cognitive appraisal of a potential stressors impact as it does on the event or
Situations can be expressed as stressful to one indivi
Chapter 9 Confidence and Optimism
People tend to be overconfident in their judgments, believing themselves to be right
about things more often than they are.
People are frequently overoptimistic about the future in relation to events that may
Definition the set of cognitive operations used by individuals and households to
organize, evaluate, and keep track of financial activities.
The Endowment Effect
Definition - People may tend to overprice items that they are trying to
Violations of Procedure Invariance
Response Mode Compatibility
High outcome/low probability gambles being assigned higher prices but low
outcome/high probability gambles being chosen when the two types of
gambles are paired.
The Prominence Hypothesis
Assessing Calibration (2): Confidence Intervals
Overconfidence arises on interval tasks partly as a result of noise (random error)
and partly as a result of a tendency to seek confirming evidence for ones
judgments (confirmation bias).
The anchoring an
Chapter 10 Judgment and Choice over Time
People frequently underestimate the time it will take to complete projects.
Psychology students predicted that they would finish their senior thesis way
before they actually did.
Optimistic bias is gr
Hormone that reduces hunger
Hormone that is released that helps regulates the flow of food
through the digestive tract.
Also recues hunger and promote rest and SWS.
Released in the 1st SWS period
Does not occur if sleep i
Dreams and Dreaming
Dreams are road to unconscious mind
Only looked at youth and sex/aggression
Looked at collective dreaming throughout
Discovery of REMs
Dement and Kleitman
No difference in what people dream in the lab or at home
Chapter 11 Dynamic Decisions and High Stakes
Dynamic Decision Making
The Beer Distribution Game
READ THE GAME SITUATION ON PAGE 120
Four cases per week and jumps to eight cases per week.
Players overreact by ordering too much instead of reaching equi
The role of the Endocrine system: SAM and HPA systems
1. First under stress the hypothalamus orders the pituitary gland to secrete
ACTH, which is taken up by receptors in the adrenal glands.
2. The hypothalamus acts as a general to its solider. So when th
He stated that the impact on health depends on frequency, duration, and intensity.
The counterpart to daily hassles is daily up-lifts: which are mood-lifting
Other Stress information
Other types of stress include environmental stress,
The quality of some children to bounce back from environmental stressors that
might otherwise disrupt their development. EXAMPLE: abuse, poverty, etc.
These children have high self-esteem, self-discipline, strong control of feelings,
and good s
Changes in cardiovascular activity that are related to psychological stress.
Vagal tone- a measure of the relationship between the rhythmic increases and
decreases in heart rate associated with breathing in and out.
A system that provides audible or visible feedback information regarding
involuntary physiological states.
EMG feedback- detects skeletal muscle activity by measuring muscle tension via
electrical discharge in muscle fibers.
Biofeedback was fi
There are 3 types of prevention that are undertaken before, during, and after
1. Primary Prevention- health enhancing efforts to prevent disease or
injury from occurring. Example: Exercise
2. Secondary Prevention- actions taken
Stressor- any event or situation that triggers coping adjustments.
Stress- the process by which we perceive and respond to events, called stressors, that are
perceived as harmful, threatening, or challenging.
Introduced stress before Hans Se
Anatomical theory- the theory that the origins of specific diseases are found in
the internal organs, musculature, and skeletal system of the human body. The
humoral theory was finally disregarded after this theory developed.
The application of psychological principles and research to the
enhancement of health and the prevention of disease
Impact of social conditions on health
Ancient method intervention in which a hole was drilled into the human
Sleeps, Dreams, and Behavior- Unit 2 Study Guide
Chapter 5- The Body during Sleep
Growth hormone is released at night, so it is essential to sleep.
Body is quite; low activity
Organs maintain homeostasis
Brainstem controls the reflexes an