Intro to Social Psychology
o The scientific studies of how people think about, influence, and relate to
o Central themes include:
How we construe our social worlds
How our social intuitions guide and sometimes deceive us
The history of Psychology
Psychology emerged from 2 disciplines
o Theory of reflexes- mechanistic theory (abides by laws of physics).
Vitalists hold that living organisms are fundamentally different
Why does our behavior affect our attitudes?
Three competing theories explain why our actions affect our attitude reports
o Cognitive dissonance
Tension arises when one is simultaneously aware of two
Explains this attitude change
1. Behavioral confirmation
a. A type of self-fulfilling prophecy whereby peoples social expectations
lead them to behave in ways that cause others to confirm their
b. EX: If I told you that someone was beautiful and intelligent, you will
1. Availability heuristic
a. A cognitive rule that judges the likelihood of things in terms of their
availability in memory. If instances of something come readily to mind,
we presume it to be commonplace.
a. Activating particular associations in memory
b. Ex: Watching violence will prime people to interpret ambiguous actions (a
shove) and words as aggressive.
2. Embodied cognition
a. The mutual influence of bodily sensations on cognitive prefere
o The sense of hopelessness and resignation learned when a human or
animal perceives no control over repeated bad events.
o Selgmann (1975) experiment
There are two sides with metal bars
They shock one side when the light dims, the
Dual attitude system
o Differing implicit (automatic) and explicit (consciously controlled)
attitudes toward the same object. Verbalized explicit attitudes may change
with education and persuasion; implicit attitudes change slowly, with
practice that for
o The belief that others are paying more attention to our appearance and
behavior than they really are.
Illusion of transparency
o The illusion that our concealed emotions leak out and can be easily read
o What we
o A testable proposition that describes a relationship that may exist between
o Research done in natural, real-life settings outside the laboratory
o The study of naturally occurring relationships
o The case of Tan
Stroke caused tissue to dysfunction- made them forget language.
First anatomical localization of human functions.
o Stated that all living creatures are related, so animals could be studied to
look at human beh