Edward Lee Thorndike and the Law of Effect
Law of effect
o Behaviors followed by favorable consequences become more likely, and
that behaviors followed by unfavorable consequences become less likely.
o Thorndike offered fish as reward to cats
Forming a new conditioned response tendency.
In order for a stimulus to be associated with a response, the
stimulus must be presented right before the unconditioned
Occurs when the CS and UCS are no longer paired a
o A statement of procedures used to define research variables.
o Ex: human intelligence may be operationally defined as what an
intelligence test measures.
o Repeating the essence of a research study, usually with dif
o Groups tend to perform more risky shifts than individuals.
o Individuals in groups tend to adjust their beliefs and make a more risky
o Cautious shift
Is seen in Rogers case, because his situation results for less risk
Group Processes and Influence
Groups play an important role in our self-concept
Groups are a powerful force in our social environment.
We are drawn to groups and are influenced by them if we are not members.
Minimal group study
o Showed people gave mo
Routes to Persuasion
The Central Route
o Occurs when interested people focus on the arguments and respond with
o Attention is paid to info in the message, allowing the target to make a
o Audience is analytical and m
o Publicly acting in accord with social pressure, while privately disagreeing.
o Normative influence:
Based on a persons desire to fulfill others expectations, often to
o Classic study: Asch Study
Matching lines study
o Taboo against incest
o Description of personality
o Forms of Address (status and formality).
o Friendship norm
Make eye contact when talking
Patty Hearst Case
Kidnapped by SLA
Turned into one of them
o Making oneself adjust to an environment in order to fit in and favorable
to others in the eyes of the others.
Roles, Attitudes, and Behavior
Stanford Prison Experiment
Psychology- birth of a science
Developed from philosophy and physiology
o mind/body dualism (mind and body are function separately)
o early theory of reflexes- mechanistic theory (abides by laws of physics)
o tabula rasa a
Positive and Negative Punishment
o Any stimulus that when presented after a response, weakens the
response by providing something
o ALWAYS WEAKENS THE RESPONSE BY PROVDING SOMETHING
o EX: getting a ticket for speeding
o Any stimulus th
Ch. 5 Intelligence
Camila de la Guardia
Intelligence: Global capacity to think rationally acts purposefully, overcome obstacle, and adapt to a changing environment.
Cognition: A general term that stands for a series of processes by witch the individuals a