Refers to the process in which learning takes place, but there is no demonstration
of that knowledge until a reward or incentive is present.
Rejection that mental status cant be studied scientifically.
o Linguistic information
Smallest unit of speech, when changed it changes the meaning of
the word (ex: bat and pat)
Perceive phonemes categorically
o Kuhl & Miller
o Wanted to see if non-human animals had the ability to iden
o Application of cognitive psychology
o Science of understanding human capability
o All sects of psychology can be taken into account
o Coffee machine that doesnt tell you to put a cup in, so thats a cognitive
o You can experience pain, pressure, temperature, texture, and movement on the
skin. This can cause either PAIN or PLEASURE.
o Largest organ in your body
o Job is to keep the bad stuff out
o You experience pain when your skin is dam
Cohen et al (2011)
o Multiple object tracking
o Tracking 2 dots in the span of many.
o A random photo is shown
o 10% of people only noticed the picture.
o Another 15% noticed it when it was mentioned.
o 75% dont know/saw the photo
o Inattentional blindnes
A familiar object keeps its perceived shape despite major changes in retinal
stimulation due to changes in its orientation.
Refers to the fact that our perceptions of the size of objects are relatively constant
Neural impulses transmitted from our receptors (to the world to brain)
Biological process of your stimulus
Start with an environmental or distal stimulus
Then you attend to small amounts, even though a lot of distal stimulus is out in
Chapter 12- Helping
o Concern for helping others that ask for nothing in return.
o A motive to increase anothers welfare without conscious regard for ones
o Social interaction is based on a minimax strateg
Environmental factors and aggression
Increased pain is likely to cause aggression
Also can be a factor in causing aggression.
Is also a factor.
Calhouns rat colony study (1962)
Biological basis of Aggression: Instinct theories
o Aggression as an inborn drive
o Freud (1920) proposed a death instinct to explain aggression and war.
o Death Instinct theory
Profound unconscious desire to escape the tensions of living by