Art tifthe Americas ‘ J
Some of the main: periods are these:
lOImec = Mexico, around the
‘ ' \ Gulf of Mexico
Moche “ u Coastal Peru
'Teotihuacan _ Near Mexico City,
Mayan _ , . I , , , Belize, Guatemala,
‘ Honduras, Yucat
Abstract: works‘ of art that may haVe form, but have little or no-attempt at pictorial representation
Academy: an institution whose main object is to train artists in an academic tradition, ennoble
the profession, and hold
African Art , _ _ 4.”;
Some chief African civilizations include:
Civilization Time Period Location
Nok ‘ Nigeria
Great ZimbabWe ‘ ‘ Zimbabwe
lfe Culture Nigeria
Benin 2* Nigeria
Mende Sierra Leone
Kongo _ Congo
0 Much African art
Pacific: Art ‘ .
Except for the Easter Island sculptures, which date from the tenth century,» most
Paciﬁc art dates from the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. The art of the Paciﬁc
people is also referred to as Oceanic art.
' Clearly deﬁne
d p I ' nun-ran
.0 The Japanese have one of the best preserved continuous artistic traditions in
the world. , I '
° Zen Buddhist thought dominates much Japanese artistic production.
' The' tea ceremony is a unique feature of Japanese culture. _
Movement Major Artists
Prairie Style Wright
Fauvism Derain, Matisse
The Bridge Kirchner
Metaphysical Painting DeChirico
The Blue Rider Kandinsky, Marc
Late Nineteenth— ‘
The Realist art movement was philosophically based on the theory of posi-
tivism. » ,
Japanese art had a‘ profound impact on late nineteent
° The philosophies" and Confucius permeatei‘all' aspects iof Clinic's; " i ' I
thought; Einclu’d‘inglthe ﬁn’earts. L a ‘ ‘v : z s g . ‘z
‘0 Calligraphy is .the‘mosterrespected Chinese art form; , ‘ . . . .i
,0 Various; Chinese painting formats i
The French Revolution of 1789 and the European revolts of 1848 form a neat,
although not completely accurate, boundary for Romanticism.
- Romanticism is heavily inﬂuenced by a spirit of individuality, with a freedom
entury Art and the
ontemporary World _
Abstract Expressionism t DeKooning, Pollock
Pop Art ‘ “ Hamilton, Lichtenstein, Warhol
Color Field Painting , Rothko
Minimalism . ' v Judd
Site Art ' ‘
0 Indian art stresses the inteconnectiveness of all the‘artsz‘ architecture," painting, '
andsculpture.“ ‘ l ‘1 " I i" ' ‘
° Buddhist and Hindu philosophies form a background to Indian artistic ”
thought. I l i ‘ a ' ’ ' « i -
0 A vibrant school
in Italy: Fifteenth Century.
The early Renaissance takes place 'in the courts of Italian city—srates; ,Ferrara,
Florence, Mantua, ‘Naples,’Rome, Venice, and so on. ' '
The revitalization of classical ideals in'literatu're
° The Enlightenment brought about a rejection of royal and aristocratic
authorityThe Rococo style was replaced by the Neoclassical, which was per—
' ceived as more democratic. ' ‘
° Neoclassicism was inspired by the unearthing
Baroque Art _'
The term “Baroque” means “irregularly shaped”, or “odd,” a negative word that
evolved in the eighteenth century to describe the Baroque’s deviation from the Italian
0 The Counter—Reformation, which symbolized the
Later Renaissanmin ’i i
NorthernEurDPe and Spain:
,0 The Reformation sparked a serieslofpiconoclasms throughout Northern >
Europe, destroying much great art work and prohibiting new work from _
The Rococo ' .
The Rococo derives its name from a combination of the French rocgzillc,‘ meaning
“pebble” or “shell,” and barocco, meaning “baroque.” Thus, motifs in the Rococo
were thought to resemble ornate shell or pebble work.
' The shif
Mannerismand ' ' 1 Mn
Other Trends of Late ». v . . ‘
Mannerism comes from“ the ltalian word maniem,‘ meaning “mannered” or “style.”
° Mannerist art is deliberately intellectual, asking the viewer to respond in a
° The revitalization of the city of Rome under the patronage of Pope Julius 11
led to one of the 'most creative outbursts in the history Of art. I
0 High RenaiSSance artists seek to emulate Roman grandeur by undertaking
awe—inspiring artistic pr
Romanesque Art 1
To nineteenth-century art historians, Romanesque architecture looked llke a deriva-
tive of ancient Roman art, and they titled the period “Romanesque,” or “in the 1
Roman manner.” Although there are some superﬁcial resemblances in th
Early Renaissance in A
Northern Europe: ’
Fifteenth century I
The earlv Renaissance Northern Europe place in the mercantilecenters of
Flanders (Belgium), Holland, Germany, and France. ’ ' ' ‘ ’
KEY: IDEAS"? ~ f 4
r 9 An active and prosperous capi
Gothic Art in Italy ’
This chapter concerns Italian Gothic art in Pisa, Florence, and Siena.
° Late Gothic art ‘in Italy forms a bridge between Medieval and Renaissance '
° The artist becomes an- important historical personality w
Early Medieval. Art ' _
Hiberno-Saxon Art ‘ British Isles'
Viking Art ScandinaVia
Carolingian Art - France, Germany
Ottonian Art Germany
' The Migratory period of the ‘Early Middle Ages featured portable works that
" Gothic Art w ‘
Early Gothic 1
High Gothic, Rayonnant Gothic
Late Gothic, Flamboyant Gothic
Gothic architecture built on advances made in the Romanesque: the rib vault,
the pointed arch, and the bay system
“3mm t M ‘ ~_
' The chief building for Muslim worship is the mosque, which directs the wor—
shipper’s attention to Mecca through a niche called a mihrab. . ‘
° Calligraphy is the most prized art form,‘and appears on most Islamic works
of art. .
' ‘ Byzantine Art s ‘ ' v V ’
Middle of High Byzantine
L Late Byzantine
° The Byzantine Empire was born out of the remains of the Roman Empire, ‘
and continued elements of the Roman classical
Late Antique Art?-
Early ‘ Christian Art, Early Jewish ‘
f Christianity began asia prohibited and thereforeunderground religion. Its
earliest works appear in the catacombs and on sarcophagi.
0 Christian images were inspired by the clas
Legendary founding of Rome
by Romulus and Remus
Early Roman Empire
Late Roman Empire
0 Roman art reﬂeCts the ambitions of a powerful empire—monumental build-
ings and Sculptures were built to the glory of t
Tenth Century B.C.E. to c. 270 B.C.E. g
Height: seventh—sixth centuries B.C.E.
° Most of what isknown about Etruscan civilization comes down tous in elab-
orate necropoli ﬁlled with tombs that resemble large rooms in a ho
,Orientalizing Art > ‘
Archaic An "
Classical Art ' ‘
Late Classical Art
° ' Greek art introduces the‘conceptof classical art. ,F V I l ‘ ~ 2
9 Greek sculpture ischaracterized by the
Aegean Art ' ; I I _"
Civilization Time Period Location
Cycladic ” Cycladichslandjs in the
Minoan I Crete
Mycenaean . ‘ Greece
" The Cycladic civilization of the Greek islands produced stylized statuettes of
nude standing females