Sources of error include carrying out the titration properly.
For example, excess indicator may affect the endpoint by participating in the acid-base
One sorce of error that was greatly reduced in this lab was random error because the
It was supersaturated because as temperature of the test tube increased, a greater amount
of solute was able to dissolve.
During the cooling process, however, the solution crystallized before adding the one
This may have occurred because the solu
Specific Heat of Lead (Pb)
of water in
Mass of water
Unsaturated, Saturated, and Supersaturated Solutions
Steps 1 & 2:
The temperature of the test tube is slightly colder than room temperature, but there was
no change in the temperature during the dissolving process.
This is an unsaturated sol
Solid metals in order of reactivity (highest to lowest):
Magnesium (Mg) is the most active solid metal.
Copper (Cu) is the least active solid metal.
The results supported the hypothesis for
This lab introduced different pH indicators. The purpose of the lab was to explore various
indicators and observe the different pH ranges in which each indicator's color(s) changed.
This information would then be useful in predicting w
The discovery of isotopes showed that even atoms of the same element could differ in
mass by having different numbers of neutrons.
There were shades blue, red, green, yellow, and purple present at various pH values and
Rutherford's gold foil e
In chemistry, an indicator is a chemical that changes color when the concentration of a
substance of interest changes.
Acid-base (or pH) indicators change color when the pH (concentration of acid) changes.
Another type of indicator is a redox indicator li
Comparing Activities of Selected Metals
Data and Observations:
The reactivity of the solid metals used in the experiment can be predicted based on
the metal activity series.
The metals, in order of increasing activity, are as follows: coppe
First, the buffered solutions were prepared and poured about halfway into nine different
Then each of the nine indicators (listed under materials) was added into a test tube.
This was done by adding only a few drops of the indicato