conservation of matter
Decomposition reactions occur when a single reactant is broken down into two or more products. Metallic carbonates decompose into metallic oxides and carbon dioxide. Example: A sample of magnesium carbonate is heated. MgCO3 MgO and CO2 Metallic chlorates
Formation of a Gas Common gases formed in metathesis reactions are: H2S: Any sulfide (salt of S2-) plus any acid for H2S (g) and a salt. CO2: Any carbonate (salt of CO32-) plus any acid for CO2 (g) , HOH and a salt. SO2: Any sulfite (salt of SO32-) plus a
Frequently an investigation will involve finding out how one quantity affects the value of another. The quantity that is deliberately varied is called the independent variable. The quantity that changes due to the variation in the independent value is cal
It is now time to concentrate on writing chemical equations in the form required for the AP Chem exam! All equations in the previous sections were written as if the reactants and products were molecular. In overall (total) ionic equations, formulas of the
In many reactions between two compounds in aqueous solution, the cations and anions appear to switch partners according to the following equation:
AX + BY AY + BX
The two compounds react to form two new compounds. No changes in oxid
Reversible Reactions If a double replacement reaction does not go to completion (no precipitate, gas or molecular species is formed), then the reaction is reversible (no ions have been removed). Reversible reactions are at equilibrium and have both forwar
Use complete sentences to answer the questions below. PART A 1. Describe some clothing and accessories that would be inappropriate in the lab. Explain why they should NOT be worn. 2. Are there any other things associated with you person that might be a sa
that produce primarily molecules in the form of partially dissociated or ionized molecules (weak electrolytes) or molecules that do not ionized of dissociated at all (nonelectrolytes) serve as the driving force in some aqueous reactions. Forming molecular
Acid-Base Neutralization Reactions Acids react with bases to produce salts and water. One mole of hydrogen ions will react with one mole of hydroxide ions to produce one mole of water. Learn which acids are strong (written in ionic form!) and which acids
Choose words from the list to fill in the blanks in the paragraphs.
Matter has uniform characteris
A. Match the scientist with the discovery or contribution. A choice may be used more than
1. Law of Conservation of Mass
2. Law of Definite Composition
3. Law of Multiple Proportions
4. First used the word atom
Matching Indicate the scientist associated with the following
(A)Aristotle, (B)Bohr,(C)Chadwick,(D)Dalton, (E)Democritus,(F)Lavoisier, (G)Milikan,
(H)Proust,(I) Rutherford, (J)Thomson)
1. Law of Definite Composition
2. Law of Definite Proportions
In Bohrs atomic model, electrons must occupy specific, quantized energy levels in an atom. For
hydrogen, the following equation was derived to calculate electron orbit energy (En).
Where n = quantum number (1, 2, 3 and etc.)
1. Use the above equation, ans
1. What is the frequency in hertz of blue light having a wavelength of 425 nm? (1
nm = 10-9 m)
2. A certain substance strongly absorbs infrared light having a wavelength of
6.50m. What is the frequency in hertz of this light? (1 m = 10-6 m)
3. Ozone prote
amu stands for atomic mass unit which is closely related to mass number. It is
used as the normalized unit for atomic mass.
Calculating average atomic mass for any given element:
1. List all the isotopes.
2. List abundance (in %) for each isotope.
1. Fill in the Blanks
A(n) _ is a pure substance that is made of only one kind of atom.
The symbol for a(n) _ is always one or two letters. When the symbol
contains two letters, the first letter is always _, and the second
letter is always _.
A(n) _ is a
PART A COMPOSITION OF MATTER
1. Classify the following as element, compound, heterogeneous mixture, or
solution (homogeneous mixture).
airIt depends. Within roughly the same altitude,
1. Use the stability band shown on the left to answer the following questions.
a. Will a nucleus with 60 protons and 70 neutrons be stable?
b. Will Zn-70 isotope be stable?
c. Which of the following isotopes will be radioactive? Ne-21, Nd-130, K-39, Zr120