Statistics at a Glance
Nominal Scales
A set of arbitrarily named or numbered
categories
i.e: classifying people by eye color
Displays categorical information
Ordinal Scales
Ranking data from first to last
It ONLY shows order
i.e. order of horses finishing
AP Statistics
Midterm Review
1.
Twenty-five statisticians went golfing. Each of the 25 golfers hit three golf balls off a tee and
then calculated the average length of the three drives. The data is below (in yards):
227
252
250
269
258
244
269
235
255
231
Chapter 9: Sampling Distributions
Definitions:
o Parameter A number that describes a population. (Parameter values are unknown)
Examples of parameters would be , , , etc.
o Statistic A number that is computed from sample data without making use of any
un
Chapter 8: The Binomial and Geometric Distributions
Definitions:
o Probability Distribution Function Assigns a probability to each value of some
random variable X
o Cumulative Distribution Function Calculates the probability of obtaining at most X
success
Chapter 7: Random Variables
Definitions:
o Random Variable A variable whose value is a numerical outcome of a random
phenomenon
o Probability Distribution Shows the possible values that a variable takes and the
individual probabilities assigned to each of
Chapter 6: Probability
Definitions:
o Random Use to describe a phenomenon where individual outcomes are uncertain
but there is nonetheless a distribution of outcomes in a large number of repetitions
o Probability The proportion of times an outcome would o
Chapter 5: (Surveys)
Definitions:
o Census A complete enumeration of the an entire population
o Population An entire group of individuals we want information about
o Sample A part of the population that we actually examine in order to gather info.
o Sampl
Chapter 4: More on Two-Variable Data
Definitions:
o Extrapolation The unreliable use of a regression line (or curve) outside the
domain of values of the explanatory variable
o Lurking Variables A variable that has a significant effect on the relationship
Chapter 3: Examining Relationships
Definitions:
o Response Variable (dependent) Measures the outcome of a study
o Explanatory Variable (independent) Attempts to explain the observed outcomes
o Scatterplot Shows the relationship between two quantitative va
Chapter 1: Exploring Data
Definitions:
o Individuals Objects described by a set of data
o Variable Any characteristic of an individual
o Categorical Variable Refers to a group in which an individual belongs
o Quantitative Variable Possess numerical values