The Scientific Method
Scientists have a systematic approach to solving a problem. (The Scientific Method)
Step 1 The problem
This is a question that needs to be answered. Perhaps it is what treatment
can help fight cancer. It could be what paper towel is
Systems of Change
A system is a set of components or parts that function together to act as a whole.
A sewage treatment plant, your body, a city or a river are examples.
Most systems share the same common characteristics.
These common characte
O horizon - organic matter accumulation and decomposition, topsoil
A horizon zone of leaching
B horizon - zone of accumulation
C horizon weathered parent material, either rock or sediments
R horizon bedrock
Factors that contribute
Urbanization, Population Growth, Global Impacts, and Sustainability Population
Pop. In 1 AD was 100 mill.
1960 3 bil
Last 40 years pop. Doubled to 6.3 bil.
Likely reach 10 bil. by 2040
(max . Estimates of global support are 40 bil.)
Why the trends in the
Population: all the individuals of a species that live together in an area
Demography: the statistical study of populations, make predictions about how a
population will change
Three Key Features of Populations
What exactly is Evolution?
Any change in a population over time
A concept first developed by Charles Darwin, an English Scientist
H.M.S. Beagle in the 1800s
Spent most of his time at the Galapagos Islands, off the coast of South America
On the O
The most important part of a species niche is how it obtains energy.
All energy comes from the sun.
2 basic types of organisms
Autotrophs those that can make their own energy. AKA the
Heterotrophs those that must eat food to get energy.
What is Ecology
The study of how organisms interact with their environment
The environment is made up of 2 parts:
o -abiotic factors- all the nonliving parts
o -biotic factors all the living parts
Biosphere-area on earth where living things are
Stage One/Pre-Industrial/ (Poverty)
-High Birth Rate
- Parents depend on children (agrarian/elderly care)
-Lower childbearing age and no birth control
-High Death Rate
-Lack of clean drinking/poor hygiene
Cycles, Succession and Communities
Transpiration-loss of water from plant leaves
Carbon- into air by combustion and respiration, out of air by photosynthesis
(CO2 gas produced by us and used by plants)