Introduction to Biology
What is Biology?
Biology the study of life
From Greek bio meaning life & logos meaning study of
Anything that is alive is called an ORGANISM
What makes something alive?
6 main characteristic of life:
All organisms are made of
What do living things do?
Stimulus and Response:
A STIMULUS is anything in an organisms environment that causes the organism to
E.g. Loud noise, smell of food, predator
A RESPONSE is a reaction to a stimulus.
E.g. Flinching at the sound of a no
What happens to living things over time?
Adapations and Evolution:
All organisms have ADAPTATIONS to help them survive.
An ADAPTATION is any inherited structure or behavior that helps an organism
Adaptations are inherited from previous generat
What is Ecology?
ECOLOGY is the study of interactions that take place between organisms and their
The BIOSPHERE is the portion of Earth that supports living things
Extends from highest mountain to the bottom of the o
Roles in Habitats
PREDATORS hunt and eat other organisms
The animals predators eat are called PREY
SYMBIOSIS is a close and permanent relationship between organisms of different species
SYM = together; BIOSIS = living
Energy and Nutrients
Where does Earths Energy come from?
The ultimate source of energy for life is the SUN
Plants use the suns energy to manufacture food in a process known as
An organism that can make its own food is called a
Food Chains and Cycles
A FOOD CHAIN is a simple model that shows how matter and energy moves through an
producers consumers decomposers
Arrows on a food chain show the direction ENERGY is moving
Each step in a foo
Organic and Molecules:
There are 4 ORGANIC MOLECULES that are essential for all life
Monomer: simple building blocks
Polymer: groups of monomers
Acids and Bases:
pH measures how acidic
Types of Nutrients
Carbohydrates provide us with QUICK ENERGY
4 kilocalories per gram
Foods: grains, fruits, vegetables, sweets
Carbohydrate Test: Iodine will turn blue-black color to test for starch
LIPIDS are fats, oils, and
Meiosis increases genetic diversity because every sperm or egg is a little bit different. No
two offspring are exactly the same
Genetic diversity causes some organisms to be mor