1. Nucleus controls the cell; contains the DNA
Brain of the cell
Found in the middle of the cell
2. Ribosomes assemble proteins
Do NOT have membrane surrounding them
Found in BOTH eukaryo
View of the Cell
Simple light microscope one lens
Anton van Leeuwenhoek: 1600s
Compound light microscope multiple lenses
Maximum Magnification: 1500x
Total magnification = eyepiece X objective
E.g. Eyepiece (10X) X Objective (40X)
Parts of the Cell Membrane
The plasma membrane is composed of a PHOSPHOLIPID BILAYER (double layer)
A phospholipid molecule is a lipid which is composed of a glycerol, a phosphate, and two
The two fatty acid tails of the phosp
In the cell, WATER always moves to reach an equal concentration of both sides of the
The diffusion of water across a semi-permeable membrane is called OSMOSIS
Anything that is dissolved in water is called a SOLUTE
Photosynthesis is the process that uses the suns energy to make glucose (simple sugar)
Light and Dark Reactions:
Photosynthesis occurs in TWO phases:
Light Reactions (daylight) converts sunlight to ATP
Happens in the THYLAKOID DISCS
The process by which organisms break down food molecules (glucose) to produce ATP is
called CELLULAR RESPIRATION
Two Types of Respiration:
There are two basic types of cellular respiration
Why are cells small?
1. Cells get nutrients and lose waste by diffusion
Diffusion only works efficiently if cells are very small
2. DNA limits cell size
There must be enough DNA to make all the enzymes and proteins the cell needs
Breakdown of a cell cycle
What happens during a cell cycle?
The cell spends most of its time in INTERPHASE
G1 Cell grows in size
S - DNA is duplicated
G2 Centrioles and other organelles are assembled
Haploid, Diploid, & What is Meiosis?
Haploid vs. Diploid:
Haploid cell a cell with only one copy of each chromosome (23 total in humans)
n haploid; n = 23
Diploid cell a cell with 2 copies of each chromosome (46 total; 23 pairs in humans)
The Breakdown of Meiosis
Cell grows in size
DNA is duplicated
During Prophase I:
Chromatin condenses into chromosomes
Nuclear membrane dissolves
Homologous chromosomes pair up and CROSSING O
Introduction to Biology
What is Biology?
Biology the study of life
From Greek bio meaning life & logos meaning study of
Anything that is alive is called an ORGANISM
What makes something alive?
6 main characteristic of life:
All organisms are made of
What do living things do?
Stimulus and Response:
A STIMULUS is anything in an organisms environment that causes the organism to
E.g. Loud noise, smell of food, predator
A RESPONSE is a reaction to a stimulus.
E.g. Flinching at the sound of a no
What happens to living things over time?
Adapations and Evolution:
All organisms have ADAPTATIONS to help them survive.
An ADAPTATION is any inherited structure or behavior that helps an organism
Adaptations are inherited from previous generat
What is Ecology?
ECOLOGY is the study of interactions that take place between organisms and their
The BIOSPHERE is the portion of Earth that supports living things
Extends from highest mountain to the bottom of the o
Roles in Habitats
PREDATORS hunt and eat other organisms
The animals predators eat are called PREY
SYMBIOSIS is a close and permanent relationship between organisms of different species
SYM = together; BIOSIS = living
Energy and Nutrients
Where does Earths Energy come from?
The ultimate source of energy for life is the SUN
Plants use the suns energy to manufacture food in a process known as
An organism that can make its own food is called a
Food Chains and Cycles
A FOOD CHAIN is a simple model that shows how matter and energy moves through an
producers consumers decomposers
Arrows on a food chain show the direction ENERGY is moving
Each step in a foo
Organic and Molecules:
There are 4 ORGANIC MOLECULES that are essential for all life
Monomer: simple building blocks
Polymer: groups of monomers
Acids and Bases:
pH measures how acidic
Types of Nutrients
Carbohydrates provide us with QUICK ENERGY
4 kilocalories per gram
Foods: grains, fruits, vegetables, sweets
Carbohydrate Test: Iodine will turn blue-black color to test for starch
LIPIDS are fats, oils, and
Meiosis increases genetic diversity because every sperm or egg is a little bit different. No
two offspring are exactly the same
Genetic diversity causes some organisms to be mor
Minerals and Mineral Groups
Describe the characteristics that all minerals share.
Identify the groups in which minerals are classified and their characteristics.
Minerals are categorized based on their chemical composition.
Describe how melted rock produces minerals.
Describe how hot rock produces different minerals.
Explain how minerals form from solutions.
Minerals form under an enormous range of geologic conditions. There a
Mining and Mineral Use
Explain how minerals are mined.
Describe how metals are made from mineral ores.
Summarize the ways in which gemstones are used.
Identify some useful minerals.
Some minerals are very useful. An ore is a
The ores journey to becoming a useable material is only just beginning when the
ore leaves the mine. Rocks are crushed so that the valuable minerals can be
separated from the waste rock. Then the minerals are separated out of the ore. A
Types of Rocks
Define rock and describe what rocks are made of.
Know how to classify and describe rocks.
Explain how each of the three main rock types formed.
Describe the rock cycle.
There are three types of roc
Three Main Categories of Rocks
Rocks are classified into three major groups according to how they form. Rocks
can be studied in hand samples that can be moved from their original location.
Rocks can also be studied in outcrop, exposed rock formations that
Describe how igneous rocks form.
Describe the properties of some common types of igneous rocks.
Relate some common uses of igneous rocks.
Igneous rocks form from the cooling and hardening of molten magma in man
From Rocks to Magma
Whether rock melts to create magma depends on:
Temperature: Temperature increases with depth, so melting is more likely to
occur at greater depths.
Pressure: Pressure increases with depth, but increased pressure raises the
Sedimentary Rocks and Igneous Rock Classification
Describe how sedimentary rocks form.
Describe the properties of some common sedimentary rocks.
Relate some common uses of sedimentary rocks.
Classify Igneous rocks
Sandstone is one of the common types of sedimentary rocks that form from
sediments. There are many other types. Sediments may include:
fragments of other rocks that often have been worn down into small pieces, such
as sand, silt, or clay.