Proteins, Transcription, Translation
Protein Synthesis Overview
Protein synthesis occurs in two steps:
Transcription is the process of making mRNA from a DNA template.
Transcription is similar to DNA replic
Final Concentration (tea stock
mixed with brine)
% Death of Brine Shrimp
5mL of 10x tea stock
concentration, 0mL of brine
3.75mL of 10x tea stock
concentration, 1.25mL of brine
2.5mL of 10x tea stock
Gregor Mendel was an Austrian monk and was the first person to successfully study
GENETICS, the branch of biology that studies heredity
Mendel chose to study the garden pea plant:
The male gamete is pollen an
What were Mendels Conclusions
Mendel concluded that each organism must have two factors that control each of its traits
We now know that traits are controlled by GENES and are located on chromosomes.
Genes exist in alternative forms called ALLE
Laws of Genetics
The Law of Segregation
The Law of Segregation every individual has two alleles for each gene and each gamete
receives one of these alleles
The Law of Independent Assortment
The Law of Independent Assortment genes for different traits ar
Types of Genetic Crossings
A dihybrid cross looks at two genes at the same time
E.g. Height AND seed color
Gamete Determination (Dihybrid)
Each parent has two alleles for each gene
Each gamete can only have one allele for each gene
How is the sex of a living thing determined?
Humans have a diploid number of 46 chromosomes in 23 pairs
22 of those pairs are called AUTOSOMES and are the same between males and females
The 23rd pair are the SEX CHROMOSOMES and are in
How the Environment Affects Genetics
Genes can be expressed differently based on certain environmental influences
Genes determine potential phenotypes
Possible environmental influences:
Temperature, nutrition, light, chemicals
The Mendelian Inheritance of Human Traits
A PEDIGREE is a graphic representation of family inheritance
Similar to a family tree
Follows the inheritance a single trait
E.g. color blindness
Generations are marked with Roman numerals
I, II, II
Intro to DNA
What is DNA?
DNA stands for deoxyribonucleic acid
DNA contains all the genetic information that determines an organisms traits
DNA achieves control by its production of proteins
DNA Makes Proteins
All living things contain proteins. Prote
How does DNA work?
Double Helix DNA
Guanine always bonds with Cytosine
Thymine always bonds with Adenine
How does DNA carry information?
DNA carries information in the form of nucleotide sequences.
The sequence ATATGCTCTA carri
RNA is similar to DNA in that it is a nucleic acid.
RNA differs from DNA in 3 ways:
RNA is single stranded (it looks like half a zipper) and DNA is double stranded.
The sugar in RNA is ribose and in DNA it is deoxyribose.
RNA contains 4 base
All About Chimpanzees - EnchantedLearning.com. (n.d.). Retrieved October 2, 2015, from
27 Awesome chimpanzee smiling images. (2015). Retrieved October 2, 2015, fr