Section 8-3 ROQ
Activity Series of the Elements:
The ability of an element to react is referred to as the elements activity
The more readily an element reacts with other substances, the greater its activity
Activity series a list of elements organized
8.2 ROQ Types of Chemical Reactions: Chemical reactions are classified into categories: Synthesis Decomposition Single-replacement Double-replacement Combustion Synthesis Reactions: Synthesis reactions, also known as composition reactions, are when two or
Section 8.1 ROQ Describing Chemical Reactions: Chemical reaction the process by which one or more substances are changed into one or more different substances. The original substances are known as the reactants, and the resulting products are known as the
Section 7-4 ROQ
Determining Chemical Formulas:
Empirical Formula consists of the symbols for the elements combined in a compound, with
subscripts showing the smallest whole-number mole ratio of the different atoms in the
For ionic compounds, the
7-2 ROQ Oxidation Numbers: Oxidation Numbers also called oxidation states, are assigned to the atom composing the compound or ion in order to indicate the general distribution of electrons among the bonded atoms in a molecular compounds or a polyatomic io
Chemical Names and Formulas:
To describe the atomic makeup of compounds, chemists use systematic methods for
naming compounds and for writing chemical formulas.
Significance of a Chemical Formula:
Chemical formulas reveal the number of atoms of
Molecular polarity the uneven distribution of molecular charge, determined by the polarity of
each bond, along with the geometry of the molecule.
Valence-shell, electron-pair repulsion
VSEPR Theory states that repulsion between the
Chemical is different in metallic compounds than in ionic, molecular, or covalent-network
For example, metals are much better conductors than molten ionic compounds.
This is due to highly mobile valence electrons.
This is not possible o
An ionic compound is a compound attracted together such that the negative charge and
positive charge are equal.
A formula unit is the simplest collection of atoms from which an ionic compounds
formula can be established.
Formation of ionic compou
Section 6.2 ROQ Most chemical compounds are made up of molecules Molecule a neutral group of atoms that are held together by covalent bonds. Molecular compound a chemical compound whose simplest units are molecules The composition of a compound is given b
Section 5-2 ROQ Periods and Blocks of the Periodic Table: Vertical groups Horizontal periods S block reactive metals Group 1 alkali metals Group 2 alkali-earth metals D block transition metals P-block main-group elements Group 17 halogens (most reactive n
Section 5-1 ROQ
History of the Periodic Table o Mendeleev and Chemical Periodicity Dmitri Mendeleev wrote a book which organized the elements according to their properties. Placed the name of each element on a card with the atomic mass, physical, and ch
Section 4-1 ROQ
Rutherfords model was incomplete. It failed to state where the electrons were located in space
surrounding the nucleus. In the early twentieth century, a new model incorporating light was
Properties of Light:
Visible light is a
Section 3-2 ROQ
Atoms are made up of a nucleus and energy levels.
In the nucleus, there are neautrons, and usually more than one proton.
In the energy levels surrounding it, there are electrons. These particles are called
Section 3-1 ROQ
The atom theory was developed by Democritus, as early as 400 B.C.
The word atom is based off of the Greek word meaning indivisible
Aristotle thought matter was continuous, so both theories were argued throguhout
Then, scientists bega
Section 2-3 Outline
Accuary and Precision: Accuracy refers to the closeness of measurements in relation to the acceptable measurement. Precision refers to the closeness of measurements in relation to each other.
Percent Error: Percent Error a percentage t
Chapter 1 : Matter and Change
Section 1-1 : Chemistry is a Physical Science
Chemistry is the study of the composition, structure, and properties of matter and the changes it undergoes. Instruments are often used by scientists and chemist to extend the hu