General Bio 2 chapter 4 notes:
Define Fermentation - Is an anaerobic energy generating process.
Muscles cells, bacteria can oxidize NADH through what? - Lactic acid
Define Yeast - Single celled fungi that not only can use respiration for ene
General Bio 2 chapter 1 notes:
Pyrimidines - Thymine & Cytosine
DNA vs RNA DNA RNA Both
Deoxyribose Ribose Polymers
Double Stranded Single Stranded
Helix No Helix
Without Oxygen= H With Oxygen= OH
Semiconservative Replication - When DNA breaks a
Microbio Chapter 7 notes:
Family of Hantavirus is called bunyaviridae
What is Abiogenesis - life springing from mixture of things
What happened in 1665? - discovery of cell
Who discovered the cell? - Robert Hooke
How was the cell discovered? - Observed ce
Microbiology Chapter 11-12 notes:
How is HIV treated? - Protease inhibitors
How is HIV synthesized? - one long polypeptide
What do protease inhibitors do? - they do not allow any protein modification (cutting),
will stop the onset of AIDS
Hantavirus is ak
Microbiology Chapter 6 notes:
Algae release oxygen
Algae are both - multicellular & unicellular
Viruses are different because - they are not technically living
Life is defined by Cell, homeostasis, Growth and development, Assimilation of energy, Have gene
Microbiology chapter 2 notes:
Spirillium means. - spiral shaped
Bacteria cell wall is comprised of.? - peptidoglycan & carbohydrates
Peptidoglycan is specific to. - bacteria
How long has bacteria been around? - 3.5 billion years
Yellowstone hot springs. -
Microbiology chapter 3 notes:
Clostridium botulinum is used in what and does what? - used in botox and paralyzes the
Gonorrhea is caused by - Neisseria gonorrheae
Gonorrhea is becoming - drug resistant
Salmenolosis is caused - Salmonella newport
Microbiology chapter 5 notes:
Protozoa have - flagella & cilia
Cilia aka pseudopods
Pseudopods means - fake foot
Normal protozoa euglena
Disease causing protozoa - Giardia lamblia
Animal parasites are microorganisms, but are often included in microbiology
Microbiology Chapter 1 notes:
Microbiology - the study of small life
Examples of microbes. Bacteria, Archaea ,Fungi, Protozoa ,Multicellular Animal Parasite, Algae,
Microbes are mostly. - unicellular
Bacteria outnumber human cells - 10: 1
1g of so
Microbiology chapter 4 notes:
Archaea live in - extreme conditions
halophile means - high salt
thermophile means - high temperature
Fungi are classified as eukaryotes
Fungi are both - unicelluar & multicellular
Example of unicellular fungi yeast
Microbiology Chapter 10 notes:
Agar plate is a - solid medium
Agar plates are made by - pouring sterile liquid into a petri plate
Broth media is - liquid media without agar
Examples of macroscopic growth - colonies on agar plate or cloudiness in broth
Microbiology Chapter 9 notes:
What is nomenclature? - the naming of something?
When referring to a microbe how many names do you use? - 2. first the genus then the
Both names get? - italized (type) or underlined (handwritten)
Genus is capatilized
Microbiology Chapter 8 notes:
Who dispelled abiogenesis? - Louis Pasteur
How was abiogenesis dispelled? - Broth-filled flasks with swan necks open to the air.
When neck was in place, particles (and microbes) fell to the neck bottom. No growth
General Bio 2 chapter 2 notes:
Mitochondria - Energy is not created nor destroyed.
Photosynthesis - Light energy to chemical energy.
Glucose - Is used to make ATP.
These uses photosynthesis process: - Plant, bacteria and algae.
Cellular Respiration - Is i
General Bio 2 chapter 5 notes:
Where does the citric acid cycle occur? - Mitochondria Matrix.
Oxidation Phosphorylation Function: - The electrons are shuttled through the
electron transport chain and ATP is generated.
Where does oxidation phosphorylation
General Bio 2 chapter 3 notes:
How is the cellular respiration equation helpful? - To show the changes in electron
What happens when Glucose loses hydrogen atoms? - It is converted into CO2.
Matrix - Is in the middle of the membrane.
General Bio 2 Chapter 6 notes:
Synthesis means? - Light energy is converted to chemical energy and stored in thr
chemical bonds of sugar molecules.
Two Stages of photosynthesis: - Are linked by ATP and NADPH.
Where are light energy converted ? - In the th
General Bio 2 chapter 9 notes:
Tetrad - Four chromatids.
Chiasma - Is a place where two homologous chromatids are attache each other.
Genetic Recombinations - The production of gene combinations different from
those carried by the original chromosomes.
General Bio 2 chapter 10 notes:
ATP Synthases - Protein complexes built into inner membrane that synthesize
What happens when you reduce two molecules of NAD+? - Forms two
molecules of NADH.
What happens after NADH is formed? - Two molecules of ATP i
General Bio 2 Chapter 7 notes:
Asexual reproduction - The creation of genetically identical offspring by a single
parent, without the participation of sperm and egg.
Chromosomes -Structures that contain most of the organisms DNA.
Binary Fission - Prokaryo
General Bio 2 chapter 8 notes:
Growth Factor - A protein secreted by certain body cells that stimulates other cells
Carcinomas - Cancer cells that originate in external or internal coverings of the
body such as skin or lining of intestine.
General Bio 1 chapter 1 notes:
Scientific Method - Dynamic systematic approach to gain understanding of the world
Steps of the Scientific Method Observation
Hypothesis Driven - Possible explanation for observations
General Bio 1 Chapter 5 notes:
Energy relationships - Takes energy to form bonds and to release when broken
Redox reactions - Oxidation and reductions is linked
Oxidation - Losses Electrons
Reduction - Gains Electrons
Molecules - A stable group of atoms h
General Bio 1 Chapter 3 notes:
Analogous Structures - Different origin used for the same function. Butterfly wing and
Vestigial Structural - Evolutionary reflects remnants of organs with important ancestral
functions.Goosebumps and Tailbones
General Bio 1 Chapter 6 notes:
Hydrogen bonds - Weak. Bonds with water involved.
Hydrophobic bonds - Very Weak. Hydrophilic bonds that love water and
Hydrophobic bonds that hate water.
Van der Waals - Extremely weak. Electrical attractions due to charge
General Bio 1 Chapter 4 notes:
Atoms - Matters has mass and occupies space
Weight - Protons & Neutrons
Charge - Protons & Electrons
Ions - Atoms that are charged particles
Cation - Number of proteins makes it more positive
Anion - Number of electrons make
General Bio 1 Chapter 8 notes:
^G not equal to 0 - Work occurs
^G is equal to 0 Death
Tertiary Structure Globular Protein 3 clouds
Only a single polypeptide chain
Quaternary Structure - The
General bio 1 chapter 10 notes:
Monosaccharids - The building blocks of carbohydrates are single sugars
Redox Reactions - Always Paired
Oxidation Reactions - Atom or molecule loses an electron + charge
Reduction - Gain of electron
Proteins - 20 different
General bio 1 chapter 9 notes:
CHON Atoms Valence Max
Structural Isomers - Molecules with identical formula but molecules arranged
differently. Branched and Unbranched.
Geometric Isomers Stereoisomers
Functional Groups - Doesn't change and