Variables affecting equilibrium
Concentration changes in product or reactant
Changes in pressure or volume (gas only)
o (Inverse) pressure = volume
pressure = volume
Changes in tem
Antacid Analysis Lab Report
Community College of Beaver County
102 70 Lab
July 28, 2014
Determine the neutralizing effectiveness per gram of two commercial antacids,
Alkaseltzer, and Tu
Organic chemistry 2 chapter 4 notes:
Nomencalture: what to do with there are 2 double bonds? 1. number longest chain that includes both double bonds.
2. use di-ene, tri-ene, etc suffix
when do we use E/Z nomenclature? - Used when there are 4 different gro
Organic chemistry 2 chapter 6 notes:
describe the electrophilic acid catalyzed Hydration mechanism. addition reaction. (not sure if this pic matches)
THREE steps: (protonation of HO occurs prior to actual mechanism)
1. pi bond attacks hydrogen of hydroniu
Organic Chemistry 2 chapter 7 notes:
H2SO4, heat; H2O, heat - 1. addition of SO3H to benzene (sulfonation)
2. removes SO3H from benzene (desulfonation)
Cl2, AlCl3 - add Cl to aromatic ring (halogenation); can also use Br2 and AlCl3;
Br2, FeBr3 - add B
Organic chemistry 2 chapter 5 notes:
what does Hydrohalogenation add?
is it endo or exo thermic? Adds Hydrogen and Chloride, bromide or Iodide.
explain Hydrohalogenation mechanism - 2 step addition.
1. pi bond attacks the H of the H-X , formin
Organic Chemistry 2 chapter 1 notes:
Steps for drawing the product/s of dehydrohalogenation (3 steps) 1. Find the alpha C (sp hybdridized C bonded to the leaving group)
2. Identify all beta carbonds with H atoms
3. Remove HX and form a pi bond
Organic Chemistry 2 chapter 3 notes:
Explain E1 kinetics 1st order (unimolecular): rate = k[HX]
rate depend only on substrate concentration.
Explain E1 steps Two steps:
1. leaving group leaves, forming intermediate C
2. Base snatches beta hydrogen; beta h
Organic Chemistry 2 chapter 8 notes:
H3PO2 - reduction of PhN2 -> benzene
H2O, warm - substitutes PhN2 -> PhOH (Phenol)
KMnO4, acid - PhCH3 -> PhCOOH; can also use NaCr2O7; reacts with any R
group with hydrogens on its benzylic carbon to form benzoic acid
Organic Chemistry 2 Chapter 10 notes:
=CHCl (vinyl halide) - CH3CH2 -> CH3CH2CH=CH2
RMgBr or RLi or R2CuLi, H2O, H+ aldehyde -> secondary alcohol; ketone -> tertiary alcohol; epoxide -> alcohol (both
reduction and addition of halogen or R group to the epo
Organic Chemistry 2 chapter 2 notes:
explain E2 mechanism 1. Base snatches Hydrogen from beta Carbon.
2. the hydrogen leaves behind electron pair, which forms the new pi bond
3. leaving group takes its electrons and leaves.
Pi bond remains.
DBN - Sterical
Organic Chemistry chapter 1 notes:
Organic Chemistry - The branch of chemistry which deals with carbon compounds,
including those with no relationship to life.
Covalent Bond - Inter-atomic relationship created by the sharing of at least one pair of
Organic chemistry chapter 3 notes:
Structural Formula - Shows the actual bonding of atoms to each other.
Condensed Formula - Shows all the atoms in a molecule and places them in a
Molecular Formula - States the actual number of each kind
Organic Chemistry chapter 4 notes:
Alcohols - Organic compounds that contain the hydroxyl group (R-OH).
Noted by the the suffix "-ol"
Mono- Contains one group
di- Contains two groups.
Tri- - Contains three groups.
Tetra- Contains four groups.
Thiols - Any
Organic Chemistry chapter 5 notes:
Ketones - Organic compounds containing the carbonyl group attached to two
organic radicals. Noted by the suffix "-one"
Ethers An organic compound whose molecules have two alkyl groups joined to the
same oxygen atom (R-O-
Organic chemistry chapter 7 notes:
Disulfide - When two thiols undergo oxidation, they yield this structural unit
which is composed of a linked pair of sulfur atoms (R-S-S-R).
what is an Alkyl halide? - a halogen bonded to an sp carbon
what is the Most im
Organic chemistry chapter 8 notes:
What types of reactions do alkyl halides undergo? - substitution and elimination
3 general requirements for Nucleophilic substitution: 1. sp hybridized carbon bonded to X.
2. X is good leaving group
3. there is a nucliop