Statistics Chapter 2 notes:
Median - the middle value with half of the data above and half below it
Stemplot A table in which data values are divided into either a "leaf" or a "stem." In a stem and
leaf plot, the stem values appear on the vertical axis an
Statistics Chapter 7 notes:
Standardized Value - value found by subtracting the mean and dividing by the standard
deviation
Boxplot - displays the 5-number summary as a central box with whiskers that extend to
the non-outlying data values
Mutually Exclusi
Statistics Chapter 10 notes:
Interval level of measurement - like the ordinal level, with the additional property that
the difference between any two data values is meaningful, however, there is no
natural zero starting point (where none of the quantity i
Statistics Chapter 8 notes:
Data - collections of observations (such as measurements, genders, survey responses)
Statistics - is the science of planning studies and experiments, obtaining data, and then
organizing, summarizing, presenting, analyzing, inte
Statistics Chapter 6 notes:
Degrees of Freedom - The number of individual scores that can vary without changing
the sample mean. Statistically written as 'N-1' where N represents the number of
subjects.
Dotplot - A one dimensional plot of a quantitative d
Statistics Chapter 3 notes:
Block Design the random assignment of units to treatments is carried out separately within each block
Least Squares Regression Line - the line that makes the sum of the squares of the
vertical distances of the data points from
Statistics Chapter 5 notes:
Binomial - a quantity expressed as a sum or difference of two terms
Experiment - the act of conducting a controlled test or investigation
Law of Large Numbers - (statistics) law stating that a large number of items taken at
ran
Statistics Chapter 4 notes:
Confounded Variable - A variable whose effect on the response variable cannot be
separated from the effect of the explanatory variable on the response variable.
(Note: Usually confounded variables are lurking variables but only
Statistics Chapter 1 notes:
Statistical Significance - An observed effect too large to attribute plausibly to chance.
Non-Response Bias - Bias introduced to a sample when a large fraction of those sampled
fails to respond
P-Value - found by substituting t
Statistics Chapter 12 notes:
histogram - uses adjacent bars to show the distribution of vales in a quantitative variable;
each bar represents the frequency (or relative frequency) of values falling in an
interval of values
stem-and-leaf display - shows qu
Statistics Chapter 16 notes:
lurking variable a variable other than x and y that simultaneously affects both variables, accounting for
the correlation between the two
model - an equation or formula that simplifies and represents reality
linear model - an
Statistics Chapter 9 notes:
Statistical Significance If the likelihood of getting the results is so small, then the results are
Parameter a numerical measurement describing some characteristic of a population.
Statistic - a numerical measurement describin
Statistics Chapter 18 notes:
random - an event is this if we know what outcomes could happen, but not which
particular values will happen
random numbers - these are hard to generate, but several websites offer an unlimited
supply of equally likely random
Statistics Chapter 20 notes:
systematic sample - a sample drawn by selecting individuals systematically from a
sampling frame
voluntary response bias - bias introduced to a sample when individuals can choose on
their own whether to participate in the samp
Statistics Chapter 17 notes:
subset if data consist of two or more groups that have been thrown together, it is usually best to
fit different linear models to each group than to try to fit a single model to all of the data
extrapolation although linear mo
Statistics Chapter 11 notes:
frequency table - lists the categories in a categorical variable and gives the count or
percentage of observations for each category
Distribution - gives the possible values of the variable and the relative frequency of each
v
Statistics Chapter 15 notes:
68-95-99.7 rule in a normal model, about 68% of values fall within 1 standard deviation of the mean,
about 95% fall within 2 standard deviations of the mean, and about 99.7% fall within 3
standard deviations of the mean
normal
Statistics chapter 13 notes:
outliers - extreme values that don't appear to belong with the rest of the data
Timeplot - displays data that change over time
Center - summarized with the mean or the median
Median - the middle value with half of the data abo
Statistics Chapter 14 notes:
mean - found by summing all the data values and dividing by the count
Variance - the sum of squared deviations from the mean, divided by the count minus one
standard deviation - the square root of the variance
comparing distri
Statistics Chapter 19 notes:
randomization - the best defense against bias, in which each individual is given a fair,
random chance of selection
Matching - any attempt to force a sample to resemble specified attributes of the
population
sample size - the