Notes 4 Great Western Philosophers
Mill Utilitarianism 1806-1873
Is an empiricist doing pretty traditional philosophy 1) The principle of utility (consequentialist) a) "The right action is the one that produces the most happiness overall." happines
(and finishing Cartesian dualism)
Two reasons for believing that we are
mind as well as body.
First, we have to think of the two as
separate, because we come to know
them in entirely different way
George Berkeley 1685-1753
What we know are ideas.
Ideas are caused by the qualities in things.
There are primary and secondary qualities.
Theres an underlying substance.
Consequence: We lose the wo
Lockes Political Philosophy
(with a little Hobbes for introduction)
What justifies the authority of government
is the consent of the governed.
Thomas Hobbes 1588-1679
Hobbes STATE OF NATURE (condition
Radical empiricism: All ideas are copies
of IMPRESSIONS, that is, all ideas come
Experiences of my own mental states
Two sorts of judgments
About the world (senses)
Immanuel Kant 1724-1804
The problem: Neither rationalism nor
empiricism offers a satisfactory
explanation of our lived experience.
Rationalism: Lovely systems, internally
consistent, but mutually exclusive, with no
The One Good Thing
The only intrinsically good thing is a
GOOD WILL. (Will is the faculty which
Other virtues? Courage? Intelligence?
In thinking about an action we can
John Stuart Mill 1806-1873
The principle of utility: The right action is
the one that produces the most
Motive > Action > Consequencesits
consequences that count.
A Consequentialist ethics.
But first just a little more on how Mill
applies the principle of utility to political
Why Mill is against paternalism
In general, who knows better and cares
more about your happinessyou or the
THALES picked water as unity underlying everything because it is everywhere, common in many forms
Thaless students Anaximander agreed with underlying unity, but not water; too specific; cant be some
determinate kind of thing.
The indeterminate boundless
Philosophy Exam #2 Notes
St. Augustine (Late Classical - 4th/5th Century) More Platonic
Thomas Aquinas (High Middle Ages 13th Century) More Aristotelian
Medieval Philosophy is a synthesis of Greek Philosophy and Biblical Revelation
Modern people have cri
Father of Modern Philosophy
Difference between Modern and Medieval
The latter takes it as given that we know
some things and then asks what has to be
the case for us to know them.
4: The argument from gradation: A
popular modern version
There is no God, and therefore there are
no objective moral values.
No law giver > no law.
(Logically equivalent: (-b>-a) > (a>b)
There are objective moral va
Thomas Aquinas: 1225-1274
The Man for the Catholic Church.
Philosophy of religion.
Aristotelian ethics and politics.
Aristotleby way of medieval Islam.
Key difference between
(First the rest of Marx)
The Socialist System
Dictatorship of the proletariat (public
ownership and decision making)
Full automation solves the problem of
No competition, no oppression.
From each accordin
Logical Positivism, continued, and
One cannot make verifiable synthetic
statements about values.
For example, both utilitarianism and
subjectivism fail as ways to analyze
Introduction: What is
Love of Wisdom
The Big Questions
Science does it all?
Why bother to do it?
Terribly influential and practical
Cant opt out
But why do the history
Great Western Philosophers
Class 2: More Presocratics
Pythagoras 6th c. B.C.
The world is made of mathematical entities
as evidenced by the fact that.
Musical tones are a
PHIL 101: Class 3
Even More Pre-Socratics
(Leucippus and Democritus)
(Protagoras, Gorgias, and
Anaxagoras: 5th c.
Empedocles was right about the tiny
But has Empedocles really solved
PHIL 101: Class 4
Draws the correct inference regarding
morality from epistemic relativism. There
is no absolute morality.
Right = Whatever those in power say it
does, in their effort to lord it over others.
NOT A BENIGN
Metaphysics (Beyond the scope of
The ultimate nature of the universe is that,
in addition to the physical world.
The objects of abstract knowledge-mathematical truths, the essence of the
Metaphysics and Epistemology
Why does Democracy inevitably
degenerate into mob rule?
And thence into.
The peoples hero (class warfare)
The P.H. needs a body guard.
Kill or exile the opposition. (All
Ethics and Politics
The Unmoved Mover
How could something not moving, cause
motion in other things? As a final cause.
First not temporally, but
hierarchicallyin the order of
PHIL 101:Part II
The Spirit of Medieval Philosophy
Introduction to God
Greek Philosophy and Biblical Revelation
Faith is not irrational
Many truths of faith can be proved by
reason for those who have the tim
God continued and St. Augustine
God and the laws of morality
(The Euthyphro dilemma)
Does God conform to an external order of
morality or value?
Does God invent morality or value?
If He conformed to them, then Hed be
limited by th
God made everything and
everything is good!
What is evil and where does it come from?
It cant be any kind of a thing because all
things come from God.
It is a lack or a perversion or a corruption of
Test #3 Notes
EPISTEMOLOGY The study of KNOWLEDGE
EMPIRICST All our ideas start with EXPERIENCE
RATIONALIST All of our knowledge arises from WITHIN ONES OWN MIND, that is from
Into Modern Philosophy
Father of Modern Philosophy